Flashcards in Quiz #1: Biological Basis For Psychiatric Disorders And Psychopharmacology Deck (90)
The brain matures from
Front to back
-Trillions of cells that form highly specific structures and communication pathways.
-For the purpose of adaptation; changes occur in order to adapt to function
What are the characteristics that can be influential to understanding?
2. Synaptic Pruning
3. Many factors: chemical changes and balances that work hand in hand with CNS that come with any change of behavior or emotional state. Focus on that part of the anatomy.
Ability of the brain to change structurally and functionally in response to input from the environment (How those cells communicate in order to respond)
-Refining by eliminating unneeded circuits and strengthening others to have a brain that accommodates. Includes Genetic Potential and Environmental Influence.
-Communicating with each other allows to create certain emotions and behaviors to adapt.
Structures of Brain and Function: Frontal Lobe
Structure of Brain/Function: Parietal Lobe
-Someaesthetic and motor discrimination
Structure of the Brain/Function: Temporal Lobe
Discrimination of sounds; verbal and speech behavior
Structure of Brain/Function: Occipital Lobe
Visual discrimination and some aspects of visual memory
Structure of Brain/Function: Brainstem - Medulla
-Other vital functions
Structure of Brain/Function: Brainstem - reticular formation
Structure of Brain/Function: Cerebellum
-Fine motor coordination
-Integration of emotional processes
Structure of Brain/Function: Corpus Callosum
-Communication between the brain’s right and left hemispheres
Structure of Brain/Function: Thalamus
-Major relay station for messages from all parts of the body
-Important in sensation of pain
Structure of Brain/Function: Pituitary
-Regulation of endocrine system
Structures that control cognitive, behavioral and emotional functions include
The cerebral cortex is responsible for
-Higher-order thinking/abstract reasoning
The basal ganglia is responsible for
-Coordinates involuntary movements and muscle tone
The hypothalamus is responsible for
-Regulating pituitary hormones
-Behaviors such as eating, drinking and sex drive
The substantia nigra is responsible for
Making dopamine (a neurotransmitter involved in complex movements, thinking and emotions)
The raphe nuclei is responsible for
Making serotonin (a neurotransmitter involved in body’s response to stress)
The locus ceruleus is responsible for
Making norepinephrine (a neurotransmitter involved in the body’s response to stress)
The limbic system is responsible for
Regulating emotional behavior, memory and learning
Chemical messengers responsible for impulse communication among neurons.
What is neurotransmission?
The process by which neurons communicate in the brain through electrical impulses and chemical messengers.
How does neurotransmission work?
-Like a key inserted into a lock, chemicals fit precisely into specific receptor cells.
-Receptor cells open or close doors (ion channels) into cells allowing interchange of chemicals or ions (i.e Na+, K+, Ca+)
-Depolarization changes the cell’s electrical charge
-Absence or excess can play major role in brain decrease and behavioral disorders.
-Single neurotransmitter can affect other brain chemicals and several different subtypes of receptor cells in different brain regions.
-Neurotransmitters can have different effects in different brain parts.
Explain the Physiology of Neurotransmitters
1. Manufactured in the neurons
2. Released from axon
3. Moves into synapse
4. Received by dendrite
5. Exchange of ions causes impulse/reaction
6. Receptor channel closes
7. Neurotransmitter returns to presynaptic membrane (reuptake)
What are common neurotransmitters?
-Plays a role in affective and anxiety disorders
-Fluctuates with sleep and wakefulness