Quiz #1: Biological Basis For Psychiatric Disorders And Psychopharmacology Flashcards Preview

NURS 419 > Quiz #1: Biological Basis For Psychiatric Disorders And Psychopharmacology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Quiz #1: Biological Basis For Psychiatric Disorders And Psychopharmacology Deck (90)
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1

The brain matures from

Front to back

2

The Brain

-Trillions of cells that form highly specific structures and communication pathways.
-For the purpose of adaptation; changes occur in order to adapt to function

3

What are the characteristics that can be influential to understanding?

1. Neuroplasticity
2. Synaptic Pruning
3. Many factors: chemical changes and balances that work hand in hand with CNS that come with any change of behavior or emotional state. Focus on that part of the anatomy.

4

Neuroplasticity

Ability of the brain to change structurally and functionally in response to input from the environment (How those cells communicate in order to respond)

5

Synaptic Pruning

-Refining by eliminating unneeded circuits and strengthening others to have a brain that accommodates. Includes Genetic Potential and Environmental Influence.
-Communicating with each other allows to create certain emotions and behaviors to adapt.

6

Structures of Brain and Function: Frontal Lobe

-Learning
-Abstracting
-Reasoning
-Inhibiting

7

Structure of Brain/Function: Parietal Lobe

-Someaesthetic and motor discrimination

8

Structure of the Brain/Function: Temporal Lobe

Discrimination of sounds; verbal and speech behavior

9

Structure of Brain/Function: Occipital Lobe

Visual discrimination and some aspects of visual memory

10

Structure of Brain/Function: Brainstem - Medulla

-Breathing
-BP
-Other vital functions

11

Structure of Brain/Function: Brainstem - reticular formation

-Arousal reactions
-Information screening

12

Structure of Brain/Function: Cerebellum

-Fine motor coordination
-Posture
-Balance
-Integration of emotional processes

13

Structure of Brain/Function: Corpus Callosum

-Communication between the brain’s right and left hemispheres

14

Structure of Brain/Function: Thalamus

-Major relay station for messages from all parts of the body
-Important in sensation of pain

15

Structure of Brain/Function: Pituitary

-Regulation of endocrine system

16

Structures that control cognitive, behavioral and emotional functions include

-Cerebral Cortex
-Basal Ganglia
-Hypothalamus
-Substantial Nigra
-Raphe nuclei
-Locus ceruleus
-Limbic System

17

The cerebral cortex is responsible for

-Decision making
-Higher-order thinking/abstract reasoning

18

The basal ganglia is responsible for

-Coordinates involuntary movements and muscle tone

19

The hypothalamus is responsible for

-Regulating pituitary hormones
-Temperature
-Behaviors such as eating, drinking and sex drive

20

The substantia nigra is responsible for

Making dopamine (a neurotransmitter involved in complex movements, thinking and emotions)

21

The raphe nuclei is responsible for

Making serotonin (a neurotransmitter involved in body’s response to stress)

22

The locus ceruleus is responsible for

Making norepinephrine (a neurotransmitter involved in the body’s response to stress)

23

The limbic system is responsible for

Regulating emotional behavior, memory and learning

24

Neurotransmitters

Chemical messengers responsible for impulse communication among neurons.

25

What is neurotransmission?

The process by which neurons communicate in the brain through electrical impulses and chemical messengers.

26

How does neurotransmission work?

-Like a key inserted into a lock, chemicals fit precisely into specific receptor cells.
-Receptor cells open or close doors (ion channels) into cells allowing interchange of chemicals or ions (i.e Na+, K+, Ca+)
-Depolarization changes the cell’s electrical charge
-Absence or excess can play major role in brain decrease and behavioral disorders.
-Single neurotransmitter can affect other brain chemicals and several different subtypes of receptor cells in different brain regions.
-Neurotransmitters can have different effects in different brain parts.

27

Explain the Physiology of Neurotransmitters

1. Manufactured in the neurons
2. Released from axon
3. Moves into synapse
4. Received by dendrite
5. Exchange of ions causes impulse/reaction
6. Receptor channel closes
7. Neurotransmitter returns to presynaptic membrane (reuptake)

28

What are common neurotransmitters?

-Norepinephrine
-Dopamine
-Serotonin

29

Norepinephrine

-Plays a role in affective and anxiety disorders
-Fluctuates with sleep and wakefulness

30

Dopamine

-Involved in control of complex movements, motivation and cognition and in regulating emotional responses.
-Many drugs of abuse (cocaine, amphetamines) cause DA release