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Flashcards in Quiz 1 Study Guide Deck (47):

What is ethnicity?

Ethnicity is a group identity that is composed of cultural origin, traditions, race, religion, and language.


What is SES?

SES (Socioeconomic Status) - A persons social class that includes education level, income, and employment status.


What is individualism?

Individualism is found in developed countries. It centers on independence from others. The people are free to choose what they study, move out, and be on their own. More effort is more success.


What is collectivism?

Collectivism is found in developing countries and the idea is group mentality. Take an example in a country where there is a young man who wants to become an engineer. The problem is in his village they will need a doctor. So to best support the group he will become a doctor to support the group (village). Even kids to drop out of school to support the family with a job is collectivism


Psychoanalytic theory stages order and when is this stage in life?

Oral-Infancy (Age 0)
Anal-Toddler (Age 1 ½)
Phallic (Ages 3-6)
Latency (Age 6 to puberty)
Genital stage (Puberty onward)


What happens in oral stage and when is this stage in life?

Oral-Infancy (Age 0)
Main pleasures come from chewing sucking and biting


What happens in anal stage and when is this stage in life?

Anal-Toddler (Age 1 ½)
Learn to poop
Elimination of pleasure
Should not be under or over controlled


What happens in Phallic stage and when is this stage in life?

Phallic (Ages 3-6)
Most important has to do with other sex parent
Fear of same sex parent and wants to replace this parent to enjoy the other sex parent otherwise known as the Oedipus complex
Solution is to overcome fear of same sex parent and desire to become like them


Psychosocial theory founder?

Erik Erikson


Stages of Psychosocial theory

Toddlerhood (12-36 months)
Early Childhood (3-6 years)
Middle Childhood (6-9 years)
Adolescence (puberty)
Early Adulthood
Middle adulthood
Late adulthood


What is toddlerhood's other name and challenge?

Toddlerhood (12-36 months)
Autonomy vs Shame and doubt
Child needs to differentiate himself from others and be able to make choices


What is Early Childhood's other name and challenge?

Early Childhood (3-6 years)
Initiative vs Guilt
Let the kid have initiative and plan activities


Strengths and criticism of Psychosocial theory

Eriksons idea that development is life long is accepted with life long changes in each stage. It also is also accepted that development is due to social and cultural basis. Many people find flaws in his proposed life stages. The only two that have generated interest is identity in adolescence and generativity in midlife.


Psychosocial connection to family

One of the first connections is in infancy where we need a trusted connection to a caregiver. Then as we grow up we prepare for a committed long term relationship for early adulthood. Middle adulthood creates the connection between the young or our children. These connections to the most immediate family are how we overcome challenges in a few stages as said before.


Ecological Theory major person?



Stages of ecological theory in order

Microsystem (Context)


Define and give example of Microsystem

Microsystem (Context)- Immediate environment and relationships
These relationships affect each other (Friends, Parents, Teachers…. whoever we interact with normally)
Ex: Parents make decisions that affect children but children make decisions that also affect their parents. Friend’s decisions affect the child but the child selects its friends.


Define and give example of Mesosystem

Mesosystem- The connections between microsystems
Ex: If a child is abused by parents it affects other areas such as a teacher’s relationship with a child


Define and give example of Exosystem

Exosystem - The societal institutions that affect development. These are schools, institutions, and media. Such as stress from school because it’s difficult for a child.


Define and give example of Macrosystem

Macrosystem – The cultural beliefs and values, economic and governmental systems.
Ex: Saudi Arabia and Islam, America and democracy, the law systems in countries


Define and give example of Chronosystem

Chronosystem- Developmental circumstances over time. Individual and historical development included.
Individual development- Losing a job at 15 is easier than at 45.
Historical changes- baby boomers, millennials, and occupational opportunity


Strengths and criticism of ecological theory

This theory suggested that children and adolescents are active participants in their environments. It also applied the chronosystem or time events which were not done before. He, like Erikson, did not sufficiently focus on the cultural development in a child’s life span.


Family effects in the ecological theory

He also suggested in wasn’t just family that influenced behavior but many people and things. He also showed that if something happens in the Microsystem it will affect the rest of the steps. The deeper the stage the bigger the effect on the rest



Human interaction leads to zone of proximal development. What someone can do with assistance from a care giver.



Things that are known facts but changed through parental guidance.


Sensorimotor (Birth to two years)

Kids use senses to discover world but with no thought (REFLEXES). Kid learns an objects still exsists when its not in sight. (Object permanence) and begin to think through mental actions.


Pre-operational (2-6 years)

Symbolic thinking to understand the world-can out a symbol to a word. Egocentric. Kids understand world from their own perspective.



Classical conditioning… Dog and Bell experience. Stimulus and behavior and linked.


Albert banura

Experience through learning and experience. Social learning theory… watching others and applying it.



Operant condition- behavior learned through reinforcement


Risk Factor

Increases the likelihood of something bad happening.


Protective Factor

Variable that decreases relationship between risk factor and outcome
The Protective Factor should reduce risk not eliminate it!!!


How would you describe this

Family Conflict------------Depression
Peer Support

A child who has a family conflict but also has peer support is less likely to become depressed than someone who has family conflict and doesn’t have peer support



46 in all and 23 pairs. Inside the pair there is a chromosome from mother and father, giving us 50 50 genetic info from parents.


Delivery- ½ to one hour
Crowning brings burning and could require an episiotomy may be required

½ to one hour
Crowning and pushing maybe an epidural


Expelling placenta and umbilical cord

few minutes 2-5 hours no more than ½ hour
Need to come out or else mother will not stop bleeding
Breast feeding or a synthetic oxytocin expels the placenta


Premature and slight premature time and consequences with cure

before 37th week
32-36 week is slight
Normal life after just need help regulating temperature and oxygen for lungs
1 week in Nic- U


Moderate premature time and consequences with cure

28-31 weeks
Feeding tube is needed because babies cannot suck and breath simultaneously
Have a condition where they stop breathing for a certain time (Apneas)
Spend 4-6 weeks in Nic-u


Severe premature time and consequences with cure

Less than 28 weeks
Prone to infection because immune system is under developed.
Low survivability especially compared to the other two.
Treatments: Feeding tube, Oxygen, IV with nutrients, Kangaroo Care, Incubator
The baby will be in Nic-u very long so the mom will have to leave and come back.
Cannot breast feed so they need to pump breast milk then it is given through a feeding tube.


Small for date babies

Weigh less than 90% of what other babies weigh at the same gestational age.
They are at 4x greater risk than preterm babies.
Second highest cause of death among infants


Very low-birth weight

weighs less than 3.3 Ibs


Extremely low birth rate

Less than 2.2 Ibs


How many reflexes do a neonate have?

27 reflexes- moro-let down- and rooting


Neonate sleeping habits

Sleeping habits in the first bit are 17 HOURS but not normal sleeping. They wake up due to food or comfortability and then fall back asleep.
changes to 14 hours with 6 hour long sleep.


Basic (fussing) cry

Mild cry and noises. Normal cry. No responce can lead to angry cry.


Angry cry

Hungry, lonely, wet, whatever they need


Pain cry

Breath and builds up to high scream from the lungs.