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Flashcards in Quiz 2 Study Guide Deck (74):

Brain Percentage from birth to age 2

Birth=25% and age two=70% brain weight


2 Year brain weight/height/weight

75% brain weight- ½ adult height- ¼ adult weight


Transient Exuberance and amount of neurons

5x more dendrites (35% skull growth in first year)
100-200 billion neurons


Synaptic density

Neurons decrease but the amount of synapses increases (2 Million per second w/ total of 100 trillion at age 2)


Synaptic pruning

Axons that are not used are removed and remaining 2/3 of axons become more effective (Use it or lose it)


Growth of frontal lobes and cerebral cortex

Frontal lobes develop faster then rest. Cerebral cortex splits into two sides.


Toddlers signs of brain development

enjoy routines, doing chores, ect


Early childhood brain development

axons continue to decrease, right and left brain tendencies appear. Motor development increases along with attention. Hypocampus is developed and able to have long term memory


Affordances and examples

are educational rich experiences that promote development such as toys-balls, pots, bottles, ect. Has more chances for play.


Know about axons-dendrites

Axons send and dendrites receive


Infancy Gross motor development

3 Months roll over
6 months Can sit up and
9-15 months for first steps and could become walking


Infancy Fine motor development

3-6 months to reach and grabbing and picking up items and transferring objects (pincer grasp)


Toddler Gross motor development

9-17 months- stand alone and walk without support (improved balance)
11-21 months- stand on one leg and climb onto chairs/bed/ect (11 months is usual time to walk)
13-22 months- walk backward and run
16-30 months- jump in place and walk on tiptoes
22-36 months- walk up and down stairs


Toddler fine motor development

7-16 months- hold writing instrument and coordinate hands (multi task)
10-21 months- build tower of two blocks and scribble vigorously
12-18 months- feed self with spoon
15-23 months- build tower of 3-4 blocks
20-28 months- draw straight line on paper
24-32 months- brush teeth
26-34 months- tower of 8-10 blocks
29-37 months- copy circle


Early Childhood motor skills

Running jumping
Boys are good with strength and girls are good at balance
Can dress themselves and cut food up, brush teeth, scissors (allows indepence and responsibility and show preference between right and left hand)



Need fat and nutrition (breast milk)
4-6 months solid food is introduced such as soft rice food
1 ½ to chew and swallow


Toddlers eating habits

Winged and eat similar to adults by age 2
High choloric needs
Important to learn how to eat healthy- vegetables (be an example)


Early childhood eating habits

Eat and enjoy whatever is given by care giver
Food preference change a lot


Circular reactions

one action and receives a responce from outside world


Primary circular action

intentional reflexes


Secondary circular actions

(4-8 months)- repetition of actions that happened by accident to make an interesting event last


Tertiary circular reactions

(18 months)- intentional doing actions to discover affects



When a stimulus is given to a child many times and the child adapts to the stimulus and stops reacting the same because the child is use to it and no longer interested. Used a lot in testing.


Stages of Language Development

2-4 months- cooing (gurgling sounds)
4-10 months- Babbling (constant vowel rep)
8-10 months- First gestures (Bye-Bye)
10-12 months- Comprehension of words and spoken sentences
12 months- first spoken word


Stranger and separation anxiety

9-15 months is when it peaks. Stress when separated from primary care giver.
6 months is when stranger anxiety starts. Because a secure attachment has been created.


Types of temperament

Early formation of personality
Irritability, Activity level, emotional, motor development, sooth-ability, attention span, sociability, adaptability, overall mood


Easy temperament (40%)

Very happy, no intense emotions, happy to be passed around


Slow to warm up temperament (15%)

Clingy at first, mild emotion and doesn’t want to be passed around but will after being around people long enough


Difficult temperament (10%)

clingy, wants to go home, only wants to be with mother


Boulbe- attachment theory

Relationship between infant and care giver. First attachment in social world so it influences all future social development
Parent is secure base and explores form this secure base and with out attachment it is hard to trust.



the child will go straight to mother and stop crying and continue to play when she is back. The mom is a secure base that the mother is back. Baby is soothed in seconds of return



baby latches onto parent and refuses to let go or when a parent leaves they don’t care.



mom comes into room and child immediately runs to mom and becomes quiet. Glued to mom and won’t leave her. Just wants to be held



Child is sorta comforted and puts child down and tries to play but comes back because fussy



How we respond to the child- respond in correlation to age



when a child needs something you are there for child


Reciprocal socialization

Children and Parents have effects on each other in life and is not one way. Has a role in the attachment theory and temperament. One baby could make a parent a certain way or vice versa. Ex: if a child is disobedient then a parent will be authoritarian


Toilet Training: process, ages, signs

Occurs 3-4 years old
2 ½ to 3 in usa for potty training
Look for dryness, interest to go to potty and asking, regular bowel movements that are consistent.

Plan to remove diapers to let them learn. Give them 40 min until you take them to potty. Accidents are okay and positive reinforcement.


Differences in girls and boys growth in early childhood

Boys are more taller and heavier and better with strength. Girls are good with coordination. Gender identities and schemes progress. Boys are aggressive and girls form social/relational aggression.


Piaget’s pre-operational stage : what is happening here along with key concepts

2-7 years old
Ability to preform mental opperations
Cognitive thinking that follows logical rules
Magical thinking
Symbolic thinking
understanding other people don’t understand your thoughts


Magical thinking

magical explanation for actions


Symbolic thinking

playing with dolls or drawing people



ability to mentally reverse an ability to understand it. Children don’t have it



things can be in many categories not just one. Ex: horse is a pet and animal



Child learns something from you but doesn't show you till later. Ability to retry actions after being seen. Ex: child sees brother tie shoe and tries it


False belief task

Ex: someone puts an item down and leaves the room. Someone else comes in and moves the item and leaves. When the first person returns the child thinks he will look where the new person hid it.


Private speech

(vygostsky) is where we speak to ourselves trying to guide or direct us almost giving ourselves instructions on how we will do something. Orgazational steps to preform cognitive tasks. First out loud then in our heads. Toddlerhood an early childhood are important to this speech. (saying steps to tie shoes)



children speak their mind because they assume what everyone else is thinking and same point of view.


Zone of proximal development

skills capable of being accomplished with some assistance. (weaning)



Assistance from a provider to a child in zone of proximal development. Breaking down a task into smaller steps and as a child begins to master the scaffolding should be reduced. A way to make kids learn by themselves with a structured help.
Kid can kick with hands on his feet-can kick with instruction-can kick alone


Preschool: What do we know about effects

Improved verbal skills, understanding and memory, listening and comprehension, socials skills are better, and independence increases


The 5 steps to a successful preschool

Education and training-Training in early childhood education is better but not required
Class size and teacher ratio- 5-10 students per teacher from ages 3-4
Age appropriate materials and activities- children learn better with hands on activities
Teacher child interaction- frequent happening
Make sure many changes happen


Peers and Toddlers – how do toddlers play and interact with peers

Toddlerhood is when friendships start outside of family
Be friends with someone similar to themselves such as we both like a slide. We both like running.
More support from father the better


Types of play in Toddlers

Solitary play- play alone
Paralel play- play sde by side but not together (using the same slide but don’t speak)
Simple social play- interact with once another. Simple play together such as waiting for someone to the top before going
Cooperative and pretend play- real play


Emotional Regulation

ability to control how and when you experience an emotion. major developmental task, can gain control over emotions. Not acting right away on emotions.


Effortful Control

strategies and behaviors learned to control emotions


Attention in Toddlerhood/Early childhood

Toddlers have short attention span- 2 to 3 min
Early childhood can have 10-15 min (4-5 year olds) attention span


Infancy- Erikson's stages/name and explanation

Trust vs. Mistrust—Main developmental challenge is to establish a connection with a trusted care giver.


Toddlerhood- Erikson's stages/name and explanation

Autonomy of shame vs. doubt—main developmental challenge is to develop a healthy sense of self as distinct from others. Own choices should be made like being dressed and putting dishes away


Early Childhood- Erikson's stages/name and explanation

Initiative vs. guilt- main developmental challenge is to Initiate activities in a purposeful way. Emotional control should be achieved and be encouraged to take initiative. If they wanna bee independent let them be or else they will feel guilt. Promotes self esteem when you let them.



Amount of substance remains the same even in shape/appearance changes. Quantities are not understood such as a glass with water and then poured into a thinner glass. The child will say the thinner glass has more.



Can only think about one part of a problem, preventing them seeing other aspects. Child could complain there is little ice cream in a big bowl but really the bowl is just big.



children focused on themselves and don’t take of perspectives of other people. not being able to determine between your point of view and another person’s point of view and assume everyone sees and thinks as they do. A child gives a father her stuffed animal to make him happy because it makes her happy.


Authoritative parents and what the benifits for the child

These parents have rules and enforce these rules. They do it with love though and explain why the consequence is happening instead of just being rigid. They can also make negotiations if the child is clever and compliant. COMMUNICATE RULES AND WHY.
Independent-Creative-Self assured-socially skilled


Authoritarian parents and what the benifits for the child

Have strict rules and there is no compromise or explanation to the rules. Not much love but rules will be followed. Not much discussion. Just no and that’s that.


Permissive/endulgent parents and what the benifits for the child

These parents don’t have clear or set rules and just try to love their child to death. They would never discipline their child due to fear it would hurt them.


Disengaged parents and what the benifits for the child

Just don’t care about rules and does not show love.


Infancy concerns

3-4 months children’s sleep at night
Parents notice autism
SIDS- sleeping face down or with stuffed animals


Toddlerhood concerns

Repeat actions they see
Emotional self regulation starts
They think they know a lot (due to sense of self). They say no a lot


Early childhood concerns

They start to socialize
Gain weight
Promote healthy eating habits
Let them do things on their own and help when needed


Nambia babies video

many caregivers, breastfed, kangaroo care, in environment


Mongolia babies video

spent time by himself, breast fed, livestock and animals, cultural activities, bucket baths


Japan babies video

mother and father equal present, play dates and classes, emotional contagion, and visited many places


San fran babies video

mother and father present, doctors, grandparents, and encouraged motor skills