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Brain Percentage from birth to age 2

Birth=25% and age two=70% brain weight


2 Year brain weight/height/weight

75% brain weight- ½ adult height- ¼ adult weight


Transient Exuberance and amount of neurons

5x more dendrites (35% skull growth in first year)
100-200 billion neurons


Synaptic density

Neurons decrease but the amount of synapses increases (2 Million per second w/ total of 100 trillion at age 2)


Synaptic pruning

Axons that are not used are removed and remaining 2/3 of axons become more effective (Use it or lose it)


Growth of frontal lobes and cerebral cortex

Frontal lobes develop faster then rest. Cerebral cortex splits into two sides.


Toddlers signs of brain development

enjoy routines, doing chores, ect


Early childhood brain development

axons continue to decrease, right and left brain tendencies appear. Motor development increases along with attention. Hypocampus is developed and able to have long term memory


Affordances and examples

are educational rich experiences that promote development such as toys-balls, pots, bottles, ect. Has more chances for play.


Know about axons-dendrites

Axons send and dendrites receive


Infancy Gross motor development

3 Months roll over
6 months Can sit up and
9-15 months for first steps and could become walking


Infancy Fine motor development

3-6 months to reach and grabbing and picking up items and transferring objects (pincer grasp)


Toddler Gross motor development

9-17 months- stand alone and walk without support (improved balance)
11-21 months- stand on one leg and climb onto chairs/bed/ect (11 months is usual time to walk)
13-22 months- walk backward and run
16-30 months- jump in place and walk on tiptoes
22-36 months- walk up and down stairs


Toddler fine motor development

7-16 months- hold writing instrument and coordinate hands (multi task)
10-21 months- build tower of two blocks and scribble vigorously
12-18 months- feed self with spoon
15-23 months- build tower of 3-4 blocks
20-28 months- draw straight line on paper
24-32 months- brush teeth
26-34 months- tower of 8-10 blocks
29-37 months- copy circle


Early Childhood motor skills

Running jumping
Boys are good with strength and girls are good at balance
Can dress themselves and cut food up, brush teeth, scissors (allows indepence and responsibility and show preference between right and left hand)



Need fat and nutrition (breast milk)
4-6 months solid food is introduced such as soft rice food
1 ½ to chew and swallow


Toddlers eating habits

Winged and eat similar to adults by age 2
High choloric needs
Important to learn how to eat healthy- vegetables (be an example)


Early childhood eating habits

Eat and enjoy whatever is given by care giver
Food preference change a lot


Circular reactions

one action and receives a responce from outside world


Primary circular action

intentional reflexes


Secondary circular actions

(4-8 months)- repetition of actions that happened by accident to make an interesting event last


Tertiary circular reactions

(18 months)- intentional doing actions to discover affects



When a stimulus is given to a child many times and the child adapts to the stimulus and stops reacting the same because the child is use to it and no longer interested. Used a lot in testing.


Stages of Language Development

2-4 months- cooing (gurgling sounds)
4-10 months- Babbling (constant vowel rep)
8-10 months- First gestures (Bye-Bye)
10-12 months- Comprehension of words and spoken sentences
12 months- first spoken word


Stranger and separation anxiety

9-15 months is when it peaks. Stress when separated from primary care giver.
6 months is when stranger anxiety starts. Because a secure attachment has been created.


Types of temperament

Early formation of personality
Irritability, Activity level, emotional, motor development, sooth-ability, attention span, sociability, adaptability, overall mood


Easy temperament (40%)

Very happy, no intense emotions, happy to be passed around


Slow to warm up temperament (15%)

Clingy at first, mild emotion and doesn’t want to be passed around but will after being around people long enough


Difficult temperament (10%)

clingy, wants to go home, only wants to be with mother


Boulbe- attachment theory

Relationship between infant and care giver. First attachment in social world so it influences all future social development
Parent is secure base and explores form this secure base and with out attachment it is hard to trust.