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Emerging adulthood – age range, cultural variation

Ages 18-24/25
Peak of function & physical ability
Starting school, careers
Dev. Period lasts longer in European Countries due to help from government
Non-Existent in other cultures


Emerging adulthood ages for marriage

21M, 23F for average age of Marriage
29M, 27F average age for marriage
increase because of increased education
more opportunities for women
less dependence on men


Relationships between adult children and parents →
Western Culture

Considered an emerging adult when one can take responsibility for his/herself
Financially independent (individualistic)


Relationships between adult children and parents →
Eastern Cultures

Very collectivistic
Supporting families or their parents


Differences in Males and Females in work and household labor

Science, Tech, Engineering, male careers
Nursing, Teaching, female careers
Labor is less conformed but still exist
Women more likely to stay at home
Women are work and come home to take care of kids
More likely to go on maternal leave
Most likely to come back after it
Most likely to communicate feelings


3 Main Characteristics of Sternberg’s triangular theory of love

Passion- How sexual attractive one is
Intimacy- How well you know the person
Commitment- how willing you are to commit


Sternberg's Types of Love

(Intimacy Alone)


Sternberg's Types of Love
Empty Love

(Commitment alone)
Family who stays together for financial reasons


Sternberg's Types of Love

(Passion alone)
Young love/puppy love


Sternberg's Types of Love
Fatuous Love

(Passion + Commitment)
Whirlwind Romances, like Bachelor/Fiancee


Sternberg's Types of Love
Companiate Love

(Intimacy + Commitment)
Old couple


Sternberg's Types of Love
Romantic Love (Intimacy + Passion)

(Intimacy + Passion)


Sternberg's Types of Love
Consummate Love

Ideal Love


Similarities between Heterosexual couples and gay and lesbian couples → focus on overlap rather than differences

There really isn’t any difference between them in terms of relationships.
Gay men have more sex, lesbians have the least sex
Looking for commitment, affection, love and mutual respect
Mutual conflict
Labor & finances
Looking for similarities in relationships
Face more ridicule and hardships


Which groups have highest rate

Women have higher rates of obesity
higher among Latinos and African Americans
Lower among Whites and Asian Americans
HighEST among African American Women
Highest rates of Obesity are in Developed Countries, where people with low SES have the highest rates


Obesity stats

BMI over 25 is overweight
BMI over 30 is obese
13%-36% increase in obesity rates from adolescents to young adults


Problems in Emerging Adulthood

Binge Drinking
Substance Use
Eating Unhealthy Foods


Problems in Adulthood

Reduced B and T cells
Lack of sleep, exercise, etc. (too little or too much)


Job satisfaction in Middle Adulthood

Work satisfaction peaks in middle adulthood, especially in the 50’s
Satisfaction comes from expertise in field
Less focus on pay and more of enjoyment of the work
Glass Ceiling for women, and women are less satisfied
Also, many people lower their goals and expectations for work
Burnout is when they feel worn out from job
Burnout is higher in U.S than Europe


Involuntary Unemployment

When someone is laid off, they feel less satisfied
Usually to a job of lower pay
More likely to stay unemployed longer than young adults


Definition of expertise

Extensive knowledge and skills in a specific field
Takes 10 years of study to attain “expertise”
Reached in 20’s, sometime 30’s (Middle Adulthood)
Ex. Nurse celebrating 30th anniversary


Middle age periods – age ranges

Americans view to between 40-60


Seattle Longitudinal Study

Fluid and crystallized intelligence
1956, 5000 young, middle-age adults
young and middle adulthood
Decline in perceptual speed, divided attention, attention span, and short-term memory
Peak in Crystallized Intelligence


Physical appearance and baby boomers

gray hair
Skin loosens, muscle mass decreases
Wrinkles appear on eyes, forehead and neck
Saggy skin
Lighter skinned people exhibit aging earlier than people with darker skin tones


What happens to height and weight in middle age

Height remains intact until age 55
Bone and spine become less dense
Body mass decreases (body fat increases, lose muscle mass) and bone mass decreases
Height slowly declines AFTER 60
1.5 inches for men and 2 inches for women


Major health concern for middle aged adults
Sleep Problems

More common after age 40
1/4th of U.S adults report less than7 hours of sleep, even though recommended is 7-9 hours


Major health concern for middle aged adults

Bones become thin and brittle
Bones mass declines gradually in the late 30’s for most people
80% of people with Osteoporosis are female
Most at risk are women who have passed menopause, as estrogen levels decrease


Major health concern for middle aged adults
Cardiovascular Disease

#1 cause of death in adults
Risk Factors:
Diet high in fat
Arteries build up with plaque, blocking arteries
Rates are lowest in Japan (low fat diet) and France (Red wine protects against cardiovascular disease)
Men are more at risk because of higher rates of smoking


Major health concern for middle aged adults

2nd leading cause of death in adults
abnormal cells multiply, which form tumors which takes nutrients away from the body
Prostate Cancer is most common in men, while Breast Cancer is most common in women


Types of intelligence and which ones increase/decrease in middle age
Fluid Intelligence

Involves information-processing abilities such as short-term memory, ability to discern relations between visual stimuli, and the speed of synthesizing new information
All in all, decreases
Perceptual Ability declines steeply
Numeric Ability declines slightly
Spatial orientation rose until midlife