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Flashcards in Quiz 4 Study Guide Deck (51):

Emerging adulthood – age range, cultural variation

Ages 18-24/25
Peak of function & physical ability
Starting school, careers
Dev. Period lasts longer in European Countries due to help from government
Non-Existent in other cultures


Emerging adulthood ages for marriage

21M, 23F for average age of Marriage
29M, 27F average age for marriage
increase because of increased education
more opportunities for women
less dependence on men


Relationships between adult children and parents →
Western Culture

Considered an emerging adult when one can take responsibility for his/herself
Financially independent (individualistic)


Relationships between adult children and parents →
Eastern Cultures

Very collectivistic
Supporting families or their parents


Differences in Males and Females in work and household labor

Science, Tech, Engineering, male careers
Nursing, Teaching, female careers
Labor is less conformed but still exist
Women more likely to stay at home
Women are work and come home to take care of kids
More likely to go on maternal leave
Most likely to come back after it
Most likely to communicate feelings


3 Main Characteristics of Sternberg’s triangular theory of love

Passion- How sexual attractive one is
Intimacy- How well you know the person
Commitment- how willing you are to commit


Sternberg's Types of Love

(Intimacy Alone)


Sternberg's Types of Love
Empty Love

(Commitment alone)
Family who stays together for financial reasons


Sternberg's Types of Love

(Passion alone)
Young love/puppy love


Sternberg's Types of Love
Fatuous Love

(Passion + Commitment)
Whirlwind Romances, like Bachelor/Fiancee


Sternberg's Types of Love
Companiate Love

(Intimacy + Commitment)
Old couple


Sternberg's Types of Love
Romantic Love (Intimacy + Passion)

(Intimacy + Passion)


Sternberg's Types of Love
Consummate Love

Ideal Love


Similarities between Heterosexual couples and gay and lesbian couples → focus on overlap rather than differences

There really isn’t any difference between them in terms of relationships.
Gay men have more sex, lesbians have the least sex
Looking for commitment, affection, love and mutual respect
Mutual conflict
Labor & finances
Looking for similarities in relationships
Face more ridicule and hardships


Which groups have highest rate

Women have higher rates of obesity
higher among Latinos and African Americans
Lower among Whites and Asian Americans
HighEST among African American Women
Highest rates of Obesity are in Developed Countries, where people with low SES have the highest rates


Obesity stats

BMI over 25 is overweight
BMI over 30 is obese
13%-36% increase in obesity rates from adolescents to young adults


Problems in Emerging Adulthood

Binge Drinking
Substance Use
Eating Unhealthy Foods


Problems in Adulthood

Reduced B and T cells
Lack of sleep, exercise, etc. (too little or too much)


Job satisfaction in Middle Adulthood

Work satisfaction peaks in middle adulthood, especially in the 50’s
Satisfaction comes from expertise in field
Less focus on pay and more of enjoyment of the work
Glass Ceiling for women, and women are less satisfied
Also, many people lower their goals and expectations for work
Burnout is when they feel worn out from job
Burnout is higher in U.S than Europe


Involuntary Unemployment

When someone is laid off, they feel less satisfied
Usually to a job of lower pay
More likely to stay unemployed longer than young adults


Definition of expertise

Extensive knowledge and skills in a specific field
Takes 10 years of study to attain “expertise”
Reached in 20’s, sometime 30’s (Middle Adulthood)
Ex. Nurse celebrating 30th anniversary


Middle age periods – age ranges

Americans view to between 40-60


Seattle Longitudinal Study

Fluid and crystallized intelligence
1956, 5000 young, middle-age adults
young and middle adulthood
Decline in perceptual speed, divided attention, attention span, and short-term memory
Peak in Crystallized Intelligence


Physical appearance and baby boomers

gray hair
Skin loosens, muscle mass decreases
Wrinkles appear on eyes, forehead and neck
Saggy skin
Lighter skinned people exhibit aging earlier than people with darker skin tones


What happens to height and weight in middle age

Height remains intact until age 55
Bone and spine become less dense
Body mass decreases (body fat increases, lose muscle mass) and bone mass decreases
Height slowly declines AFTER 60
1.5 inches for men and 2 inches for women


Major health concern for middle aged adults
Sleep Problems

More common after age 40
1/4th of U.S adults report less than7 hours of sleep, even though recommended is 7-9 hours


Major health concern for middle aged adults

Bones become thin and brittle
Bones mass declines gradually in the late 30’s for most people
80% of people with Osteoporosis are female
Most at risk are women who have passed menopause, as estrogen levels decrease


Major health concern for middle aged adults
Cardiovascular Disease

#1 cause of death in adults
Risk Factors:
Diet high in fat
Arteries build up with plaque, blocking arteries
Rates are lowest in Japan (low fat diet) and France (Red wine protects against cardiovascular disease)
Men are more at risk because of higher rates of smoking


Major health concern for middle aged adults

2nd leading cause of death in adults
abnormal cells multiply, which form tumors which takes nutrients away from the body
Prostate Cancer is most common in men, while Breast Cancer is most common in women


Types of intelligence and which ones increase/decrease in middle age
Fluid Intelligence

Involves information-processing abilities such as short-term memory, ability to discern relations between visual stimuli, and the speed of synthesizing new information
All in all, decreases
Perceptual Ability declines steeply
Numeric Ability declines slightly
Spatial orientation rose until midlife


Types of intelligence and which ones increase/decrease in middle age
Crystallized Intelligence

accumulation of a person’s culturally-based knowledge, language, and understanding of social conventions
All in all, increases
Verbal ability, inductive reasoning, and verbal memory peaked in middle adulthood
Dualistic Thinking (early adulthood)
Problem can be solved in multiple ways, and not just one
Thinking Relativism
Comparing the different theories, commit to a set a values and why you have them


Know name of Eriksons stage in middle age (generativity vs. stagnation)

Desire to contribute to the well-being to future generation
More aware of mortality, so they want to help others
Helping raise children
Assuming leadership positions
Focusing on one’s self instead of future generations
No effort to improve themselves, putting themselves first
There is a crisis, whether to focus on self or future generations


Levinson’s research on midlife transitions: phase and differences between men and women → criticisms

Midlife Crisis
Period of uncertainty and trying to change their life, includes anxiety
Claimed there was a midlife crisis in 3/4th of the men he interviewed
Did the same with women, and claimed a normative crisis
He only interviewed 40 men, most who were highly educated and white
Midlife crisis scale
Early test of the midlife crisis hypothesis
administered to sample of men ages 30 to 60
none of the aspects of the midlife crisis were supported by the majority of men
Midlife is a time when positive characteristics peak such as Control at work, sense of financial security, and the feeling of being able to handle multiple daily responsibilities
The claim of universal midlife crisis is false and is a stereotype


Self contentment in Middle Adulthood – what happens to it

Increase is Self-Contentment, higher than in any other period in life
Identity Development ripens
Acceptance in identity and self
Fulfilling goals and making new life goals
Fulfilling of what you already are
Being a parent and having a grandchild
Being less concerned with what others have
Environmental Mastery
Handling roles and responsibilities effectively


Results of the American’s Changing Lives studies → main findings

Longitudinal study that focused on difference between black and white Americans
Those with lower education status are more likely to experience chronic health problems or die at a younger age
Life events and stressors are clearly related to SES
Negative Lifetime events correlated with mortality
Financial Stress correlated with functional and health limitations


Sexual Activity in Early Adulthood

Stage where sexual activity peaks across all cultures
In most cultures, sex is seen as a way to ensure that the young adult couple have children
In the West, sex is seen as way for a couple to promote intimacy in their relationship, and is less focused on reproduction
More common in U.S
More likely to have multiple sexual partners
Men are more likely to be attracted to physical appearance
Women are more likely to be attracted to ambition and success


Know and be able to talk about difference between marital satisfaction and marital quality – be able to discuss what a couple with a set of given characteristics would look like

Martial Satisfaction
How happy one is in a relationship
How willing one is to stay in relationship
Marital Quality is dependent on both Satisfaction and Stability. Need Both.
M. Satisfaction is low, M. Stability Is high when first child is born
Non-Distressed Couples, High Satisfaction, High Commitment
Distressed couples have low Satisfaction and Commitment


The Divorce Process — be able to talk about what we know about what is important

Increases in 90’s and increasing in 2000’s but now decreasing.
40% of married individuals will experience divorce
Two Predictors
Those who are married younger are more likely to get divorced
Not good at picking a partner
Less financial stable
Bimodal Pattern of Divorce
7-year mark
divorce rates are highest
14-16 Year mark
couples do not love each other
and do not have a lot of conflict


Gottman – 7 predictors of divorce

Attacking partner for personality of character to prove yourself right or someone else wrong


Gottman – 7 predictors of divorce,

When a person sees themselves as the victim to prove that they are not the problem


Gottman – 7 predictors of divorce,

Intense physiological arousal that comes with conflict
Ex. Crying, yelling, heart rate increase


Gottman – 7 predictors of divorce,

Physical or emotional withdrawal from conflict


Gottman – 7 predictors of divorce,
Failed repair attempts

Cannot say sorry or can’t apologize


Gottman – 7 predictors of divorce,

Introducing conflict at inopportune times or in an aggressive way


Gottman – 7 predictors of divorce,

Attacking partner’s sense of self to insult or psychologically harm them


Positive ideas from gottman
5-7 positive interactions for each negative interactions

Its okay to have negativity just outdo it


Positive ideas from gottman
Magic Ratio

5-7 positive interactions for each negative interactions
Its okay to have negativity just outdo it


Positive ideas from gottman
Bids for attention

being able to drop stuff and listen. Also means saying hold on one second I really want to hear this but can we tlak in 30 min. After 30 min you initiate this and show them you care. Then you give 100%


Positive ideas from gottman
Neutral argument starts

When conflict starts it needs to be brought up tastefully and don’t blindside


Positive ideas from gottman

Accepting influence form your partner in nonimportant things is important. Mostly husbands need to do this.
Wife says hey you’re going a little fast wanna slows down? We should slow down. Woman don’t need to do this as much because woman do this at very high levels and that’s why its not as important.


Positive ideas from gottman
Gendered- taking influence

Accepting influence form your partner in nonimportant things is important. Mostly husbands need to do this.
Wife says hey you’re going a little fast wanna slows down? We should slow down. Woman don’t need to do this as much because woman do this at very high levels and that’s why its not as important.