Flashcards in Quiz 2 Infection control Deck (46)
the invasion of a susceptible host by pathogens or microorganisms, resulting in disease.
a microorganism invades the host but does not cause infection
Disease results from
Entry and multiplication of organisms
the body’s first line of defense is?
infectious process transmitted from one person to another.
If pathogens multiply and cause clinical signs and symptoms
clinical signs and symptoms are not present
the most important technique to use in preventing and controlling transmission of infection.
Chain of Infection
Infectious agent or pathogen
Reservoir or source for pathogen growth
Portal of exit
Mode of transmission
Portal of entry
means having an impaired immune system.
ability to produce disease
require oxygen for survival and for multiplication sufficient to cause disease
no oxygen required
prevention of growth and reproduction of bacteria.
destructive to bacteria
Risks of Infection
Inadequate hand hygiene (client and caregivers).
Individuals who are immuno-compromised.
Clients living in crowded environments
Individuals with poor lifestyle choices
Caregiver providing medical or surgical asepsis that does not follow established standards.
Clients who have poor hygiene
smokes or drinks alcohol excessively
high levels of stress.
Defenses Against Infection
Body system defenses
Signs of local inflammation and infection
Swelling, redness, heat, pain or tenderness, and loss of function in the affected body part
Vascular and cellular responses
Delivers fluid, blood products and nutrients to an area of injury.
Neutralizes and eliminates pathogens or dead necrotic tissue and establishes a means of repairing body cells and tissues.
Exudates (serous, sanguineous, or purulent)
Health Care–Associated Infections (HAIs)
Results from delivery of health services in a health care facility
Patients at high risk of HAIs
Lowered resistance to infection
Types of HAI infection
Iatrogenic, Exogenous, Endogenous
Results from a procedure
Comes from microorganisms outside the patient
when the patient’s flora becomes altered and an overgrowth results
Major sites for HAI infection
Surgical or traumatic wounds
Urinary and respiratory tracts
Nursing diagnoses for infection
-Risk of infection
-nutrition less than the body requires
-impaired oral mucous membrane
-risk for impaired skin integrity
Common goals of care to patients with infection
Preventing exposure to infectious organisms
Controlling or reducing the extent of infection
Maintaining resistance to infection
Verbalizing understanding of infection prevention and control techniques