Quiz 2 Infection control Flashcards Preview

Foundations > Quiz 2 Infection control > Flashcards

Flashcards in Quiz 2 Infection control Deck (46)
Loading flashcards...
1

Infection

the invasion of a susceptible host by pathogens or microorganisms, resulting in disease.

2

Colonization

a microorganism invades the host but does not cause infection

3

Disease results from

Entry and multiplication of organisms

4

the body’s first line of defense is?

Intact Skin-

5

Communicable disease

infectious process transmitted from one person to another.

6

symptomatic infection

If pathogens multiply and cause clinical signs and symptoms

7

asymptomatic

clinical signs and symptoms are not present

8

Hand hygiene

the most important technique to use in preventing and controlling transmission of infection.

9

Chain of Infection

Infectious agent or pathogen
Reservoir or source for pathogen growth
Portal of exit
Mode of transmission
Portal of entry
Susceptible host

10

Immunocompromised

means having an impaired immune system.

11

Virulence

ability to produce disease

12

Aerobic bacteria

require oxygen for survival and for multiplication sufficient to cause disease

13

Anaerobic bacteria

no oxygen required

14

bacteriostasis

prevention of growth and reproduction of bacteria.

15

bactericidal

destructive to bacteria

16

Infectious Process

incubation period
Prodromal Stage
Illness stage
Convalescence

17

Risks of Infection

Inadequate hand hygiene (client and caregivers).
Individuals who are immuno-compromised.
Older adults
Clients living in crowded environments
Individuals with poor lifestyle choices
Caregiver providing medical or surgical asepsis that does not follow established standards.
Clients who have poor hygiene
poor nutrition
smokes or drinks alcohol excessively
high levels of stress.

18

Defenses Against Infection

Normal flora
Body system defenses
Inflammation

19

Signs of local inflammation and infection

Swelling, redness, heat, pain or tenderness, and loss of function in the affected body part

20

Inflammation

Vascular and cellular responses
Delivers fluid, blood products and nutrients to an area of injury.
Neutralizes and eliminates pathogens or dead necrotic tissue and establishes a means of repairing body cells and tissues.
Exudates (serous, sanguineous, or purulent)
Tissue repair

21

Health Care–Associated Infections (HAIs)

Results from delivery of health services in a health care facility

22

Patients at high risk of HAIs

Multiple illnesses
Older adults
Poorly nourished
Lowered resistance to infection

23

Types of HAI infection

Iatrogenic, Exogenous, Endogenous

24

Latrogenic HAI

Results from a procedure

25

Exogenous HAI

Comes from microorganisms outside the patient

26

Endogenous HAI

when the patient’s flora becomes altered and an overgrowth results


27

Major sites for HAI infection

Surgical or traumatic wounds
Urinary and respiratory tracts
Bloodstream

28

Nursing diagnoses for infection

-Risk of infection
-nutrition less than the body requires
-impaired oral mucous membrane
-risk for impaired skin integrity
-social isolation

29

Common goals of care to patients with infection

Preventing exposure to infectious organisms
Controlling or reducing the extent of infection
Maintaining resistance to infection
Verbalizing understanding of infection prevention and control techniques

30

Screening for Infection

Increased WBC
Elevated sedimentation rate
Positive cultures of urine and blood