Flashcards in Quiz 3 Thorax and Lungs B Deck (67):
is a high pitched inspiratory crowing sound heard without the stethoscope occurring with the upper airway obstruction
an outward curvature of the thoracic spine
equal anteroposterior-to-transverse diameter and the ribs are horizontal instead of normal downward slope
a markedly sunken sternum and adjacent cartilages; also called "funnel breast"
a forward protrusion of the sternum, with ribs sloping back at either side and vertical depressions along costochondral junctions.
a lateral s-shaped curvature of the thoracic and lumbar spine, usually with involved vertebrae rotation.
an exaggerated posterior curvature of the thoracic spine; humpback
rapid, shallow breathing
a cycle in which respirations gradually wax and wane in a regular pattern, increasing in rate and depth and then decreasing.
similar to cheyne-stokes respiration, except that the pattern is irregular
chronic obstructive breathing
normal inspiration and prolonged expiration to overcome increased airway resistance.
increased tactile fremitus
occurs with conditions that increase the density of the lung tissue, thereby making a better conducting medium for vibrations
decreased tactile fremitus
occurs when anything obstructs transmission of vibrations
ask the person to repeat "ninety-nine" while you listen with the stethoscope over the chest wall
bronchophony normal findings
normal voice transmission is soft, muffled, and indistinct
bronchophony abnormal findings
auscultate a clear "ninety-nine"
the voice of a goat; auscultate the chest while the person phonates a long "ee-ee-ee" sound
egophony normal findings
normally you should hear "eeeee" through the stethoscope
egophony abnormal findings
sound changes to a bleating long "aaaaa" sound
ask the person to whisper a phrase like "one-two-three" as you auscultate
whispered pectoriloquy normal findings
the normal response is faint, muffled, and almost inaudible
whispered pectoriloquy abnormal findings
it sounds as if the person is whispering right into your stethoscope "one-two-three"
Normal lung findings
Inspection-relaxed,rate 10-18 breaths per min
Condition-collapsed shrunken section of alveoli or an entire lung as a result of airway obstruction, compressions on the lung, and lack of surfactant
infection in lung parenchyma leaves alveolar membrane edematous and porous, so red blood cells and white blood cells pass from blood to alveoli. alveoli progressively fill up with bacteria, solid cellular debris, fluid, and blood cells, which replace alveolar air. This decreases surface area of the respiratory membrane, causing hypoxemia
lobar pneumonia inspection
increase respiratory rate. guarding lag on expansion on affected side. children- sternal retraction, nasal flaring
lobar pneumonia palpation
chest expansion decreased on affected side. tactile fremitus increased if bronchus patent, decreased if bronchus obstructed
lobar pneumonia percussion
dull over area
lobar pneumonia auscultation
loud with patent bronchus, voice sounds have increased clarity.
lobar pneumonia children
diminished breath sounds
LP adventitious sounds
crackles, fine to medium
proliferation of mucus glands in the passageways resulting in excessive mucus secretion. Inflammation of bronchi with partial obstruction by secretions or constrictions.
hacking, rasping cough productive of thick mucoid sputum. Chronic- dyspnea, fatigue, cyanosis, clubbing of fingers
tactile fremitus normal
bronchitis adventitious sounds
crackles over deflated areas, may have wheeze
caused by destruction of pulmonary connective tissue;
an allergic hypersensitivity to certain inhaled allergens, irritants, microbes, stress, or exercise that produces a complex response characterized by bronchospasm and inflammation, edema in walls of bronchioles, and secretion of highly viscous mucus into airways
pleural effusion (fluid) or thickening
collection of excess fluid in the intrapleural space, with compression of overlying lung tissue.
pump failure with increasing pressure of cardiac overload causes pulmonary congestion or an increased amount of blood present in pulmonary capillaries
free air in pleural space causes partial or complete lung collapse
pneumocystis jirovect pnemonia
a protozal infection associated with AIDS.
inhalation of tubercle bacilli into the alveoloar wall starts
undissolved materials originating in legs or pelvis detach and travel through venous system returning blood to right heart and lodge to occlude pulmonary vessels.
ARDS-Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
an acute pulmonary insult damages alveolar capillary membrane, leading to increased permeability of pulmonary edema.
functional unites of the lung; the thin-walled chambers surrounded by networks of capillaries that are the site of respiratory exchanged of co2 and o2
angle of louis
manubriosternal angle, the articulation of the manubrium and body of the sternum, continuous with the 2nd rib
cessation of breathing
one of the smaller respiratory passageways into which the segmental bronchi divide
the normal breath sound heard over major bronchi, characterized by moderate pitch and an equal duration of inspiration and expiration
COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
a functional category of abnormal respiratory conditions characterized by airflow obstruction
millions of hair like cells lining the tracheobronchial tree
the solidification of portions of lung tissue as it fills up with infections exudate, as in pneumonia
rales, abnormal, discontinuous, adventitious lung sounds heard on inspiration
coarse, crackling sensation palpable over the skin when air abnormally escapes from the lung and enters the subcutaneous tissue
the narrow crack dividing the lobes of the lungs
a palpable vibration from the spoken voice felt over the chest wall
a coarse, grating, adventitious lung sound heard when the pleurae are inflamed
space between the ribs
a type of hyperventilation that occurs with diabetic ketoacidosis
abnormal fluid between the layers of pleura
striking over the chest wall with short, sharp blows of the fingers to determine the size and density of the underlying organ
low pitched, musical, snoring, adventitious lung sound caused by airflow obstruction from secretions
the soft, low-pitched, normal breath sounds heard over peripheral lung fields