Quiz 3 Thorax and Lungs B Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quiz 3 Thorax and Lungs B Deck (67):
1

stridor

is a high pitched inspiratory crowing sound heard without the stethoscope occurring with the upper airway obstruction

2

kyphosis

an outward curvature of the thoracic spine

3

barrel chest

equal anteroposterior-to-transverse diameter and the ribs are horizontal instead of normal downward slope

4

pectus excavatum

a markedly sunken sternum and adjacent cartilages; also called "funnel breast"

5

pectus carinatum

a forward protrusion of the sternum, with ribs sloping back at either side and vertical depressions along costochondral junctions.

6

scoliosis

a lateral s-shaped curvature of the thoracic and lumbar spine, usually with involved vertebrae rotation.

7

kyphosis

an exaggerated posterior curvature of the thoracic spine; humpback

8

tachypnea

rapid, shallow breathing

9

bradypnea

slow breathing

10

cheyne-stokes respiration

a cycle in which respirations gradually wax and wane in a regular pattern, increasing in rate and depth and then decreasing.

11

biot's respiration

similar to cheyne-stokes respiration, except that the pattern is irregular

12

chronic obstructive breathing

normal inspiration and prolonged expiration to overcome increased airway resistance.

13

increased tactile fremitus

occurs with conditions that increase the density of the lung tissue, thereby making a better conducting medium for vibrations

14

decreased tactile fremitus

occurs when anything obstructs transmission of vibrations

15

bronchophony

ask the person to repeat "ninety-nine" while you listen with the stethoscope over the chest wall

16

bronchophony normal findings

normal voice transmission is soft, muffled, and indistinct

17

bronchophony abnormal findings

auscultate a clear "ninety-nine"

18

egophony

the voice of a goat; auscultate the chest while the person phonates a long "ee-ee-ee" sound

19

egophony normal findings

normally you should hear "eeeee" through the stethoscope

20

egophony abnormal findings

sound changes to a bleating long "aaaaa" sound

21

whispered pectoriloquy

ask the person to whisper a phrase like "one-two-three" as you auscultate

22

whispered pectoriloquy normal findings

the normal response is faint, muffled, and almost inaudible

23

whispered pectoriloquy abnormal findings

it sounds as if the person is whispering right into your stethoscope "one-two-three"

24

Normal lung findings

Inspection-relaxed,rate 10-18 breaths per min

28

Atelectasis (collapse)

Condition-collapsed shrunken section of alveoli or an entire lung as a result of airway obstruction, compressions on the lung, and lack of surfactant

34

lobar pneumonia

infection in lung parenchyma leaves alveolar membrane edematous and porous, so red blood cells and white blood cells pass from blood to alveoli. alveoli progressively fill up with bacteria, solid cellular debris, fluid, and blood cells, which replace alveolar air. This decreases surface area of the respiratory membrane, causing hypoxemia

35

lobar pneumonia inspection

increase respiratory rate. guarding lag on expansion on affected side. children- sternal retraction, nasal flaring

36

lobar pneumonia palpation

chest expansion decreased on affected side. tactile fremitus increased if bronchus patent, decreased if bronchus obstructed

37

lobar pneumonia percussion

dull over area

38

lobar pneumonia auscultation

loud with patent bronchus, voice sounds have increased clarity.

39

lobar pneumonia children

diminished breath sounds

40

LP adventitious sounds

crackles, fine to medium

41

bronchitis

proliferation of mucus glands in the passageways resulting in excessive mucus secretion. Inflammation of bronchi with partial obstruction by secretions or constrictions.

42

bronchitis inspection

hacking, rasping cough productive of thick mucoid sputum. Chronic- dyspnea, fatigue, cyanosis, clubbing of fingers

43

bronchitis palpation

tactile fremitus normal

44

bronchitis percussion

resonant

45

bronchitis auscultation

normal

46

bronchitis adventitious sounds

crackles over deflated areas, may have wheeze

47

emphysema

caused by destruction of pulmonary connective tissue;

48

asthma

an allergic hypersensitivity to certain inhaled allergens, irritants, microbes, stress, or exercise that produces a complex response characterized by bronchospasm and inflammation, edema in walls of bronchioles, and secretion of highly viscous mucus into airways

49

pleural effusion (fluid) or thickening

collection of excess fluid in the intrapleural space, with compression of overlying lung tissue.

50

heart failure

pump failure with increasing pressure of cardiac overload causes pulmonary congestion or an increased amount of blood present in pulmonary capillaries

51

pneumothorax

free air in pleural space causes partial or complete lung collapse

52

pneumocystis jirovect pnemonia

a protozal infection associated with AIDS.

53

tuberculosis

inhalation of tubercle bacilli into the alveoloar wall starts

58

pulmonary embolism

undissolved materials originating in legs or pelvis detach and travel through venous system returning blood to right heart and lodge to occlude pulmonary vessels.

59

ARDS-Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

an acute pulmonary insult damages alveolar capillary membrane, leading to increased permeability of pulmonary edema.

60

alveoli

functional unites of the lung; the thin-walled chambers surrounded by networks of capillaries that are the site of respiratory exchanged of co2 and o2

61

angle of louis

manubriosternal angle, the articulation of the manubrium and body of the sternum, continuous with the 2nd rib

62

apnea

cessation of breathing

63

bronchiole

one of the smaller respiratory passageways into which the segmental bronchi divide

64

bronchovesicular

the normal breath sound heard over major bronchi, characterized by moderate pitch and an equal duration of inspiration and expiration

65

COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

a functional category of abnormal respiratory conditions characterized by airflow obstruction

66

cilia

millions of hair like cells lining the tracheobronchial tree

67

consolidation

the solidification of portions of lung tissue as it fills up with infections exudate, as in pneumonia

68

crackles

rales, abnormal, discontinuous, adventitious lung sounds heard on inspiration

69

crepitus

coarse, crackling sensation palpable over the skin when air abnormally escapes from the lung and enters the subcutaneous tissue

70

fissure

the narrow crack dividing the lobes of the lungs

71

fremitus

a palpable vibration from the spoken voice felt over the chest wall

72

friction rub

a coarse, grating, adventitious lung sound heard when the pleurae are inflamed

73

intercostal space

space between the ribs

74

kussmaul respiration

a type of hyperventilation that occurs with diabetic ketoacidosis

75

pleural effusion

abnormal fluid between the layers of pleura

76

percussion

striking over the chest wall with short, sharp blows of the fingers to determine the size and density of the underlying organ

77

rhonchi

low pitched, musical, snoring, adventitious lung sound caused by airflow obstruction from secretions

78

vesicular

the soft, low-pitched, normal breath sounds heard over peripheral lung fields

79

wheeze

high pitched, musical, squeaking lung sound