Quiz 3b (11.10.2020) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quiz 3b (11.10.2020) Deck (30)
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1

Homogeneous mixtures like salt mixed with water are called ___

solutions

2

the component of the solution that changes state is called ___

solute (lesser amount)

3

the component that keeps its state is called the ___

solvent (larger amount)

4

___ solutions have a small amount of solute compared to solvent

dilute

5

____ solutions have a large amount of solute compared to solvent

concentrated

6

a common way to express solution concentration is __

molarity (M)

7

Molarity is the amount of

solute (in moles) divided by the volume of solution (in liters)

8

Often, solutions are stored as concentrated ____. to make solutions of lower concentrations from these, more solvent is added. The amount of solute doesn't change, just the volume of solution.

stock solutions

9

The concentrations and volumes of the stock and new solutions are ____

inversely proportional

10

When sodium chloride dissolves in water, each ion is attracted to surrounding water molecules and pulled off and away from crystal. When it enters solution, the ion is surrounded by water molecules, insulating it from other ions. Result is a solution with____.

free moving charged particles able to conduct electricity.

11

Materials that dissolve in water to form a solution that will conduct electricity are called ___.

electrolytes

12

Materials that dissolve in water to form a solution that will not conduct electricity are called ___.

nonelectrolytes

13

A solution of salt is an ____. A solution of sugar is a ____.

electrolyte; non electrolyte

14

___ reactions are reactions in which a solid forms when we mix two solutions. Reactions between aqueous solutions of ionic compounds produce an ionic compound that is insoluble in water.

precipitation

15

The insoluble product in a precipitation reaction is a ___

precipitate

16

How do you predict a precipitation reaction?

1. determine what ions each aq solution has
2. determine formulas of products (exchange ions + balance charges)
3. determine solubility of each product

17

Equations that describe the material's structure when dissolved are called _____

complete ionic equations

18

Ions that do not participate in the reaction and appear unchanged on both sides of the equation are called ___

spectator ions

19

An ionic equation in which the spectator ions are removed is called a ___.

net ionic equation

20

two other important classes of reactions that occur in aqueous solution are

1. acid-base reactions
2. gas-evolution reactions

21

An acid-base reaction is also called a _____

neutralization reaction

22

In an acid-base reaction, an action reacts with a base and the two neutralize each other, producing ___

water (or in some cases a weak electrolyte)

23

In a ____ reaction, a gas forms, resulting in bubbling.

gas-evolution

24

In both acid-base and gas-evolution reactions, as in precipitation reactions, the reactions occur when____

the anion from one reactant combines with the cation of the other.

25

Arrhenius acid

substance that produces H+ (some acids called polyprotic acid; these acids contain more than one ionizable proton and release them sequentially)

26

Sulfuric acid is a ____ acid

diprotic acid

27

Arrhenius base

substance that produces OH ions in aqueous solution

28

Bronsted-Lowry theory

the acid is an H+ donor, the base is an H+ acceptor - base structure must contain an atom with an unshared pair of electrons

29

In a Bronsted-Lowry acid-base reaction, the acid molecule___

donates an H+ to the base molecule

30

In a Bronsted-Lowry Reaction, the original base___

has an extra H+ after the reaction, so it will act as an acid in the reverse process, and the original acid has a lone pair of electrons after the reaction, so it will act as a base in the reverse process