Quiz (Chapter 9) Flashcards Preview

Geol 101 Lecture > Quiz (Chapter 9) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Quiz (Chapter 9) Deck (35):
1

Numerical Dates

specify the number of years that have passed since an event occurred
specific and exact

2

Correlation within limited areas

-position of bed in a sequence
-matching of rocks of similar ages from different regions
-Fossils

3

Principal of Fossil succession

Fossils are arranged according to their age

4

Index fossils

widespread geographically and limited to a short period of geologic time

5

Fossil assemblage

group of fossils used to determine a rocks age

6

Environmental indicators of fossils

Fossils can be used to infer information about past environments

7

nucleus of an atom

protons +, neutrons 0

8

Electrons

negatively charged particles that orbit the nucleus

9

Atomic number

is told by the number of protons

10

The importance of a Time scale

-rocks record geologic and evolutionary changes throughout history

11

Principle of Superpostition

in sedimentary rocks, each bed is older than the above and younger than the one below

12

Principle of Original Horizontality

Layers of sediment are generally deposited in a horizontal position
Rocks layers that are flat have not been disturbed

13

Principle of Lateral Continuity

Beds originate as continuous layers that extend in all directions until they eventually thin out or grade into a different sediment
-continuous from side to side

14

Principle of Cross-Cutting

younger features cut across older features

15

Inclusions

fragments of one rock unit that are enclosed within another rock unit
-the rock containing the inclusion is younger

16

Unconformities

a break in the rock record produced by non-deposition and erosion of rock units
3 basic types

17

conformable

layers of rock that have been deposited without interruption

18

3 basic types of unconformities

angular unconformity
nonconformity
disconformity

19

Angular unconformity

Titled rocks are overlain by flat-lying rocks

20

Disconformity

sedimentary strata on either side of the unconformity are parallel

21

Nonconformity

sedimentary strata overlay metamorphic or igneous rocks

22

Fossils

traces or remains of prehistoric life preserved in rock

23

paleontology

study of fossils

24

Knowing the nature of life that existed at a particular time

helps researchers understand past environmental conditions

25

Types of fossils

Permineralization
Molds and casts
Carbonization impressions
Amber
Trace fossils

26

Permineralization

Mineral rich groundwater flows through porous tissue and precipitates minerals
ex: petrified wood

27

Mold and casts

A mold is created when a shell is buried and then dissolved by underground water
A cast is created when the hollow spaces of a mold are filled

28

Carbonization and impressions

happens when an organism is buried, followed by compression, squeezes out gases and liquids leaving a thin film of carbon

29

Amber

hardened resin of ancient trees
preserves insects

30

Trace fossils

indirect evidence of prehistoric life
tracks, burrows, coprolites, and gastroliths

31

increases the chances of preservation

rapid burial and possession

32

Correlation

involves matching rocks of similar ages from different regions

33

principle of fossil succession

fossils are arranged according to their age

34

Index fossils

widespread geographically and limited to a short period of geologic time

35

fossil assemblage

group of fossils used to determine a rocks age