Rad Protection II Ch 12 Flashcards Preview

Radiography Spring 2016 > Rad Protection II Ch 12 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Rad Protection II Ch 12 Deck (34):

know the best way to substantially reduce patient exposure

using proper body or part immobilization, motion reduction technique, appropriate beam limitation device, adequate filtration of the x-ray beam, and gonadal or other specific area shielding


know the difference between voluntary and involuntary motion

voluntary motion is controlled by will. involuntary motion cannot be willfully controlled caused by a certain muscle groups such as digestive organs and heart, or certain pathologic conditions


define protective shielding

a structure or device made of certain materials such as concrete, lead, or lead impregnated material that will adequately attenuate ionizing radiation


know when you should use gonadal shielding

used whenever possible unless it will compromise the diagnostic value of the exam


know the type of measure gonadal shielding is considered

secondary protective measure- not a substitute for an adequately collimated beam


know the first step in gonadal shielding

adequate collimation of the radiographic beam to only include the anatomy of interest


know who receives the most radiation to reproductive organs (and give the amount) during a pelvic exam

females receive 3x more


know the benefits of using a flat contact shield on the ovaries of a female patient

reduces exposure by 50%


know the benefits of using a flat contact shield on the gonads of male patients

reduced as much as 90-95%


know how to guide placement of a flat contact shield on a male patient

have male in supine position, use the symphysis as a guide to shield placement over testes


know where to place a flat contact shield on a female patient so it is effective

approximately 1" medial to each palpable ASIS


know the 4 basic types of gonadal shielding

-flat contact shields
-shadow shields
-shaped contact shields
-clear lead shields


know what the most effective protective device is when doing AP/PA radiographs

flat contact shields


know where a shadow shield must be located

suspended above the radiographic beam hangs over the area of clinical interest to cast a shadow in the primary beam over the patients reproductive organs


know how a shadow shield works

cast a shadow in the primary beam over the patients reproductive organs


what are shadow shields commonly used to shield specifically

breasts and gonads


describe a shaped contact shield

made of radiopaque materials contoured to enclose male reproductive organs, 1mm lead


know what clear lead shields are made of

transparent lead-plastic material impregnated with approximately 30% lead by weight


know what type of technique produces the lowest patient dose

high kVp and lower mAs


know what the air gap technique is

an alternative procedure to the use of a radiographic grid by reducing scatter radiation during certain exams(XL c-spine)--removes scatter radiation by using an increased OID


know what the air gap technique doesnt produce a bunch of scatter radiation on the IR

because of the increased distance between the anatomy and the IR


know the benefit of a repeat analysis

1. the program increases awareness among staff and student radiographers of the need to produce optimal quality recorded images
2.radiographers generally become more careful in producing their radiographic images because they are aware that the images are being reviewed.
3. when repeat analysis program identifies problems or concerns, in-service education programs covering these specific topics may be designed for imaging


know the categories for discarded images

1. images too dark or too light (technical factors)
2. incorrect patient positioning
3.incorrect centering of beam
4. patient motion
5. improper collimation
6. external foreign bodies
7. processing artifacts


know the 4 ways to record patient dose

-entrance skin exposure
-skin dose
-gonadal dose
-bone marrow dose


know what device is most often used to measure skin dose



define skin dose

the absorbed dose to the most superficial layers of the skin


define genetically significant dose (GSD)

the EqD to the reproductive organs that, if received by every human, would be expected to bring about an identical gross genetic injury to the total population


know who GSD generally applies to

child bearing ages


know why bone marrow dose is so important

radiation dose to bone marrow may be responsible for radiation-induced leukemia


know what you must ask all female patients of child bearing years before you do any exam

any chance of pregnancy and date of last menstrual period


know when a shield is also recommended for these patients

if ovaries and uterus are less than 5 cm from any edge of field


know the type of affects children are more vulnerable to

late somatic effects and genetic effects


know the proper way to use automatic collimation in pediatrics

AC reduces radiation field size to IR sixe but further manual adjustments of collimation are of often necessary since peds are significantly smaller


be able to describe the 10 day rule

based on the low degree of probability that a woman would be pregnant during the first 10 days after the onset of menstruation