Radiation Protection Ch 10 Part 2 Flashcards Preview

Radiography Spring 2016 > Radiation Protection Ch 10 Part 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Radiation Protection Ch 10 Part 2 Deck (22):
1

Biologic somatic effects of ionizing radiation that can be directly related to dose received. Cell killing effects exhibit a threshold dose below which effects do not normally occur.

Deterministic (nonstochastic) effects

2

Mutational, nonthreshold, randomly occurring biologic somatic changes in which the chance of occurrence of the effect rather than the severity of the effect is proportional to dose of ionizing radiation

stochastic (probabilistic) effects

3

The possibility of inducing a radiogenic cancer or genetic defect after irradiation

risk (as related to medical imaging)

4

Concerns the upper boundary dose of ionizing radiation that results in a negligible risk of bodily injury or genetic/hereditary damage

Effective Dose Limit

5

That any organ in the human body is vulnerable to damage from exposure to ionizing radiation

Radiation protection concept

6

Current method for assessing radiation exposure and associated risk of biologic damage to radiation workers and general public

EfD Limiting System

7

This factor indicates the ratio of the risk of stochastic effects attributable to irradiation of a given organ or tissue to the total risk when the whole body is uniformly irradiated

Tissue Weighting Factor

8

A radiation workers lifetime effective dose must be limited to their age in years times 10 mSv. Pertains to the whole body. Adhering to this limit ensures that the lifetime risk for these workers remain acceptable.

Cumulative Effective Dose

9

Know what the Consumer-Patient Radiation Health and Safety Act of 1981

Provides federal legislation requiring the establishment of minimal standards for the accreditation of education programs for persons who perform radiologic procedures and the certification of such persons

10

What is the purpose of this act?

To ensure that standard medical and dental radiologic procedures adhere to rigorous safety precautions and standards

11

Know the process to the body (how it effects it) with an increased biologic effect escalation:

Because greater numbers of cells interact with the increased number of x-ray photons that are present at higher radiation exposure

12

Know what the early nonstochastic effects include

Diffuse redness over an area of skin after irradiation, a decrease in white blood cell count, and epilation

13

What are the more serious consequences?

Hematopoietic syndrome, gastrointestinal syndrome, and cerebrovascular syndrome

14

Know what the late nonstochastic effects are

cataract formation, fibrosis, organ atrophy, loss of parenchyma cells, reduced fertility, and sterility caused by a decrease in reproductive cells

15

Know the examples of stochastic effects

-cancer
-genetic alterations

16

The 2 objectives of Radiation Protection

1. TO prevent any clinically important radiation induced deterministic effect from occurring by adhering to dose limits that are beneath the threshold levels
2. To limit the risk of stochastic responses to a conservative level as weighted against societal needs, values, benefits acquired, and economic considerations

17

Know how Effective Dose limits are expressed

Whole-body exposure, partial body exposure, and exposure of individual organs

18

To ensure the hazard to radiation workers is no greater than the hazard to the general public, what does the NCRP propose that radiation protection programs be designed to do

Prevent individual workers from having a total external plus internal cumulative EfD in excess of their age in years times 10 mSv (1 rem)

19

What the annual occupational effective dose limit?

50 mSv

20

Know what the NCRP recommends the annual EfD limits be for nonoccupationally exposed individuals (infrequent exposures)

Annual EfD limit is 1 mSv (0.1 rem) with top end of limit not to exceed 5 mSv (0.5 rem)

21

Know what the NCRP recommends for pregnant radiation workers (monthly and entire pregnancy levels)

Monthly EqD= not exceeding 0/5 mSv (0.05 rem)
Entire= Not to exceed 5.0 mSv(0.5 rem) after declaration of pregnancy

22

Know what the dose limits are for any individual under the age of 18 (training, education, working)

EfD of 1 mSv (0/1 rem) annually