What is Conduction heat exchange?
Heat transfer thru physical contact
What is Convection Heat Exchange?
Heat transfer via movement of matter
EX: Hand over flame
What is Radiation Heat Exchange?
Heat transfer involving Electromagnetic Waves
How are Electromagnetic waves produced?
Acceleration of Charged Particles
Wave-Like & Particle-Like Properties
Electromagnetic waves also act like small packets of energy, also known as?
According to Energy Conservation, How does the Total energy in an Isolated System change?
Total Energy is the kinetic energy & the mass equivalent - total energy remains constant
What is Radioactive Decay?
Spontaneous process where an unstable nucleas goes from high energy to low energy
Happens when repulsive forces > attractive forces
What is a Radionuclide?
A nuclide that undergoes Radioactive Decay
What determines the Electromagnetic Radiation's effect on Matter?
Energy of the Photon(s)
What is Non-Ionizing Radiation?
When photons dont have enough energy to ionize matter and the energy just gets absorbed by matter, causing an increase of internal energy
EX: Microwave, Infrared, UV Radiation, Visible LIght
What is actually happening when matter is exposed to Non-Ionizing Radiation and the energy is absorbed?
Rotation, Vibration, or Excitation of Electrons inside the molecule or atoms
What does Microwaves do to Atoms & Molecules?
What does Infrared do to Atoms & Molecules?
Molecules: Rotation & Vibration
What does Visible Light & UV Light do to Atoms & Molecules?
Rearrange electrons for both
Why is Ionizing Radiation more Dangerous than Non-Ionizing Radiation?
Ionizing Radiation has enough energy to Break Chemical Bonds
EX: X-rays, Gamma Rays, Alpha/Beta Particles
What are the 3 Sources of Radioactive Material?
Primordial - exists from beginning of time
Cosmogenic - Radiation from space
Anthropogenic - From environment d/t human activities
What is the Unit in which radiation Exposure is measured?
What is the Absorbed Dose of Radiation?
Amt of radiation energy absorbed per unit mass
(rad: radiation-absorbed dose is an older unit used)
At the most basic level, what does Ionizing Radiation do to Atoms & Molecules?
Removes Electrons from Atoms & Molecules
What type of cells are highly sensitive to radiation?
Cells that divide frequently - bone marrow, embryos, male gonads, tumors, CNS
What is the term for Bioligical Effects due to Radiation Exposure?
What are the products made when Radiation interacts with the water in our cells?
Ions, Free Radicals, and Excited atoms/molecules that can indirectly lead to DNA damage
Ionizing Radiation can directly lead to DNA damage
What is the term used for effects or mutations from Radiation Exposure passed on to future generations?
What are Tissue Weighting Factors (WT)?
Way to determine various radiation sensitivity of different tissue & organs
What is the Tissue Weighting Factor for Gonads?
WT = 0.20
What is the Tissue Weighting Factor for Bone Marrow & Lung?
WT = 0.12
What is the Tissue Weighting Factor for Bladder, Breast, Liver and Thyroid?
WT = 0.05
What is the Tissue Weighting Factor for Skin?
WT = 0.01
What is the ALARA Principle?
As Low As Reasonably Achievable
What do Dosimeters, film badges, and finger rings do?
Monitors Occupation Dose of Ionizing Radiation exposure