Radiation - Quiz 5 Flashcards Preview

Spring 2020 - Chemistry & Physics > Radiation - Quiz 5 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Radiation - Quiz 5 Deck (53)
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1

What is Conduction heat exchange?

Heat transfer thru physical contact

2

What is Convection Heat Exchange?

Heat transfer via movement of matter

EX: Hand over flame

3

What is Radiation Heat Exchange?

Heat transfer involving Electromagnetic Waves

4

How are Electromagnetic waves produced?

Acceleration of Charged Particles

Wave-Like & Particle-Like Properties

5

Electromagnetic waves also act like small packets of energy, also known as?

Photons

6

According to Energy Conservation, How does the Total energy in an Isolated System change?

Total Energy is the kinetic energy & the mass equivalent - total energy remains constant

7

What is Radioactive Decay?

Spontaneous process where an unstable nucleas goes from high energy to low energy

Happens when repulsive forces > attractive forces

8

What is a Radionuclide?

A nuclide that undergoes Radioactive Decay

9

What determines the Electromagnetic Radiation's effect on Matter?

Energy of the Photon(s)

10

What is Non-Ionizing Radiation?

When photons dont have enough energy to ionize matter and the energy just gets absorbed by matter, causing an increase of internal energy

EX: Microwave, Infrared, UV Radiation, Visible LIght

11

What is actually happening when matter is exposed to Non-Ionizing Radiation and the energy is absorbed?

Rotation, Vibration, or Excitation of Electrons inside the molecule or atoms

12

What does Microwaves do to Atoms & Molecules?

Atoms: Nothing

Molecules: Rotation

13

What does Infrared do to Atoms & Molecules?

Atoms: Nothing

Molecules: Rotation & Vibration

14

What does Visible Light & UV Light do to Atoms & Molecules?

Rearrange electrons for both

15

Why is Ionizing Radiation more Dangerous than Non-Ionizing Radiation?

Ionizing Radiation has enough energy to Break Chemical Bonds

EX: X-rays, Gamma Rays, Alpha/Beta Particles

16

What are the 3 Sources of Radioactive Material?

Primordial - exists from beginning of time

Cosmogenic - Radiation from space

Anthropogenic - From environment d/t human activities

17

What is the Unit in which radiation Exposure is measured?

Roentgen (R)

18

What is the Absorbed Dose of Radiation?

Amt of radiation energy absorbed per unit mass

(rad: radiation-absorbed dose is an older unit used)

19

At the most basic level, what does Ionizing Radiation do to Atoms & Molecules?

Removes Electrons from Atoms & Molecules

20

What type of cells are highly sensitive to radiation?

Cells that divide frequently - bone marrow, embryos, male gonads, tumors, CNS

21

What is the term for Bioligical Effects due to Radiation Exposure?

Somatic

22

What are the products made when Radiation interacts with the water in our cells?

Ions, Free Radicals, and Excited atoms/molecules that can indirectly lead to DNA damage

Ionizing Radiation can directly lead to DNA damage

23

What is the term used for effects or mutations from Radiation Exposure passed on to future generations?

Genetic Effects

24

What are Tissue Weighting Factors (WT)?

Way to determine various radiation sensitivity of different tissue & organs

25

What is the Tissue Weighting Factor for Gonads?

W= 0.20

26

What is the Tissue Weighting Factor for Bone Marrow & Lung?

WT = 0.12

27

What is the Tissue Weighting Factor for Bladder, Breast, Liver and Thyroid?

WT = 0.05

28

What is the Tissue Weighting Factor for Skin?

WT = 0.01

29

What is the ALARA Principle?

ALow AReasonably Achievable

30

What do Dosimeters, film badges, and finger rings do?

Monitors Occupation Dose of Ionizing Radiation exposure