What are the 4 quantities that describe the state of a gas?

Pressure

Temperature

Volume

Number of Moles

What is Standard Temperature & Pressure?

273.15 Kelvin

1 Atm

One Mole of gas @ STP has volume of 22.7 L

Boyle's Law

P_{1}V_{1} = P_{2}V_{2}

Volume is** Inversely Related** to Pressure

Charles's Law

V_{1}/T_{1} = V_{2}/T_{2}

Volume is Directly Proportional to Temperature

Avagadro's Law

V_{1}/n_{1} = V_{2}/n_{2}

Volume of Gas is Directly Proportional to Number of Gas Molecules

What is Avaogadro's Number?

6.022 x 10^{23}

Gay-Lussacs Law

P_{1}/T_{1} - P_{2}/T_{2}

Pressure is **Directly Proportional** to Temperature

Ideal Gas Law

PV = nRT

Ideal Gases Dont Exist

What is the Universal Gas Constant (R)?

R = 0.08205 L atm/mol^{-1} K^{-1}

^{or}

R = 8.314 J/mol/K

Describes relationship b/t Tmperature & Kinetic Energy

What does Gas Density Depend on?

Temperature & Pressure

Dalton's Law

Total Pressure of a mix of gases is equal to Sum of the Partial Pressures

P_{total} = P_{1 }+ P_{2} + P_{3}....

How to calculate Mole Fraction?

Divide # moles of a specific gas by the total number of moles in the mixture

What does Relatively Humidity measure?

Saturation of Water in Air

RH = Mass of Water in air / Mass of water that will fit in air

Warmer air holds more water

As Temperature Decreases, Relative Humidity will _________

Temperature Decrease = Relative Humidity Increase

What is the Dew Point?

The temperature at which Relateive Humidity = 100% and where water saturates the air.

What is the Kinetic Theory of Gases?

Gas molecules are small and are in constant, random motion frequently bumping into each other and the walls.

What does the average Kinetic Energy of gas molecules depend on?

**Temperature**, Not Gas Identity

Higher Temperature = Higher Motion

What is the definition of Gas Pressure?

**Force** of gas molecules / **Volume**

How is Gas Density calculated?

Mass of gas molecule / Volume occupied by gas

What is Internal Energy?

Sum of Kinetic Energy & Potential Energy

What is the difference between The Boltzmann Constant & Ideal Gas Constant?

Boltzmann Constant deals with **individual **molecules

Ideal Gas Constant deals with **Moles **of Molecules

What is Effusion?

Movement of gas through a small opening

What is Diffusion?

When something moves from area of higher concentration to area of lower concentration

Graham's Law

Rate of Effusion is **Inversely Proportional** to square root of molecular mass

and depends on Speed of Molecules

**(Diffusion Rate inversely propotional to Size of Molecule)**

Fick's Law

Rate of Gas Diffusion depends on

- Membrane's Chemical Properties
- Membrane Surface Area
- Membrane Thickness
- Partial Pressure Gradient

How is Diffusion Rate related to Membrane Thickness & Molecular Weight?

Diffusion Rate is **Inversely Proportional** to membrane thickness & molecular weight

Diffusion rate is __________ proportional to Partial Pressure Gradient, Membrane Area, and Solubility of Gas

Diffusion rate is **Directly **proportional to Partial Pressure Gradient, Membrane Area, and Solubility of Gas

What is Diffusion-Limited Gas Exchange

Gas from alveoli to tissues is limited by alevolar membrane

What is Perfusion-Limited Gas Exchange?

Gas from alveoli to tissues is limited by rate of blood flow through pulmonary capillaries.

What is Diffusion Hypoxia

When anesthetic gases diffuse out of the blood and back into the lungs lowering the O2 concentration.