Newton's First Law of Motion (Law of Inertia)

An object at rest remains at rest until a force acts upon it

Velocity

How position of object changes with time

Vectors...

Have both magnitude and direction, can be added together

Acceleration

How velocity changes with time

Force

Push or pull, related to mass by Newton's Second Law. Required for acceleration.

Force Formula

*F = ma*

*F*: force

*m*: mass

*a*: acceleration

Gravity

Universal attraction between all objects, related to Newton's Third Law

Newton's Third Law of Motion

For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction

Gravity of Earth

9.8 m/s^{2} = 32.2 ft./s^{2}

Weight

Gravitational force exerted on an object by a larger object, calculated using Newton's Second Law

Formula for Weight

**W**** **= *mg*

*W*: weight

*m*: mass (kg)

*g*: gravity (m/s^{2})

Pressure can be increased by...

Increasing applied force or decreasing the area force is applied

Pressure can be decreased by...

Decreasing applied force or increasing the area forced is applied

1 atm = ? torr

760 torr

760 torr = ? mmHg

760 mmHg

Formula for Pressure

Pressure = Force/Area

How does a Barometer work?

Atomospheric pressure pushes down on mercury reservoir, which forces murcury column higher

How does a Manometer work?

Measures pressure differences. Connect one end to system being measured and leave other end open to atomsphere then measure height difference

How does Bourdon Gauge work?

Aneroid style gauge commonly found on gas cylinders. Coiled tube coupled to pointer measures difference between pressure exerted by gas and atomspheric pressure.

P_{total = }

P_{gauge} + P_{atm}

Work

Expenditure of energy. Force acting through a distance.

Formula for Work

* W* =

*F***x**

*d**W*: work (J)

*F*: force

*d*: distance

Kinetic Energy

Energy of motion

Energy

Capacity for doing work. Cannot be lost, but converted

calorie

Amount of energy needed to raise temperature of 1 g of water by 1 degree Celsius

Law of Conservation of Energy

Energy is neither created nor destroyed, but only converted to other kinds of energy

Internal Energy

Sum of all kinetic and potential energies of a system

Thermodynamics

Study of energy, how it is interconverted to different forms, and how it flows in/out of thermodynamic systems

Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

2 objects A/B are same temperature. B/C are same temperatue. A/C are equal temperature (thermal equilibrium) and no heat will flow between A/C.

First Law of Thermodynamics

Change in internal energy is equal to sum of heat flow of system and work by/on system.

Formula for Change in Internal Energy

**Δ U = Q + W**

*ΔU*: change internal energy

*Q*: heat

*W*: work

Endothermic

*Q* > 0

Energy flows into system

Exothermic

*Q* < 0

Energy flows out of system

Expansion

*W* < 0

Work done by system

Compression

*W* > 0

Work done on the system

Second Law of Thermodynamics

Heat will spontaneously flow from hot object to cold object. Disorder will never be seen to decrease

Entropy

Measure of randomness or disorder

Third Law of Thermodynamics

It is impossible to lower the temperature of an object to absolute 0

Kinetic Molecular Theory

An ideal gas will have a temperature proportional to the kinetic energy of the molecules in that gas sample

Heat Capacity

Heat required to raise temperature of a given material

Types of Heat Transfer

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- Radiation 40%
- Convection 30%
- Conduction 20%
- Evaporation 10%

Convection

Heat transfer caused by movement of liquid or gas

EX: air above heat source/flame

Conduction

Transfer of heat by direct interaction of molecules in hot area w/ molecules in cooler area. Thermal conductivity of a material is the measure of efficiency

EX: Placing patient on cold table = cools patient

Radiation

Energy emitted from an object. Requires no physical medium or contact.

Evaporation

Heat lost through Respiration

Thermal Expansion

Increase in heat will cause object to expand. Expansion is constant and in all directions

Power

Rate of doing work or expending energy

Forumla for Power (watt)

*P*** = W/t**

*P*: average power

*W*: work

*t*: time

Heat Capacity Formula

*C *=* Q*/*ΔT*

Newton's Second Law of Motion

Acceleration depends on two things:

net force acting on object and mass of object

Specific Heat

Amount of heat (Q) needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of material by one degree Celsius