States of Matter & Changes of State - Quiz 4 Flashcards Preview

Spring 2020 - Chemistry & Physics > States of Matter & Changes of State - Quiz 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in States of Matter & Changes of State - Quiz 4 Deck (50)
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1

Characteristics of

Solid:

Liquid:

Gas: 

  • Solid: Definite Volume & Shape
  • Liquid: Definite Volume
  • Gas: No Definite Shape or Volume

2

Liquid Intermolecular forces can and can't do what?

Can hold molecules together, but cant prevent them from sliding past each other

3

What are the Intermolecular Forces for Gas Molecules?

Zero

4

What is Deposition?

Gas to Solid

5

What is Sublimation?

Solid directly into Gas

6

Cations

Metals that tend to give up electrons

7

Anions

Non metals that tend to acquire electrons

8

What is an Ionic Bond?

Attraction between oppositely charged ions

Stronger than Covalent Bonds

9

What are Covalent Bonds?

Sharing of Electrons by overlapping electron clouds of two atoms

Weaker than Ionic Bonds

10

Valence Electrons

Electrons on the Outer Most Shell

Number of Valence electrons = Group Number

They all want eight (octet rule)

11

VSEPR Theory

Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion

The groups connected to central atoms want to get away from eachother

12

What is Pauling's concept of Electronegitivity?

More Electronegative atoms will tend to pull electrons towards themselves

 Flourine is the most Electronegative

13

What is a Non-Polar Bond?

When two bonded atoms have the same electronegativity

14

What is a Polar Bond?

When two bonded atoms have different electronegativity.

The electrons are closer to the more electronegative atom

Creates Partial Charge

15

What are the main types of Intermolecular Forces?

Dipolar

Hydrogen Bonding

London Forces

16

Dipole-Dipole Attraction

Only happens between Polar Molecules or those of Opposite Partial Charges

17

Hydrogen Bonding

  • Type of Dipolar Interation
  • Only when directly bonded to F, O, N
  • Stronger than Dipole-Dipole
  • So when Hydrogen is bonded to F/O/N, that same Hydrogen highly attracts other things w/ partial negative charge

18

How is Hydrogen Bonding Important to the body?

  • Keeps water in liquid state
  • Holds DNA together
  • Maintain Enzymes

19

Ion Dipole Attraction

  • Attraction b/t Ionic & Polar Molecule
  • Allows ionic solids to dissolve in water
  • Strength depends on dipole moment

20

What are London Forces?

  • Weakest, but Most Important and found Everywhere
  • Occurs with uneven distribution of e- --> instant dipole
  • Bigger molecules have bigger London Forces d/t more e-
  • AKA Vander Waal Forces

21

What changes with more Intermolecular Forces?

↑Boiling & Melting

↑Heat of Fusion & Vaporization

↑Viscosity

↓Vapor Pressure

Solubility

22

How does Intermolecular Forces relate to Surface Tension?

Greater Intermolecular Forces = Greater Surface Tension

23

According to LaPlace's Law, what is the relationship between surface tension and radius?

In a blood vessel, the surface tension is directly proportional to the radius of the vessel. 

Tension = Pressure x Radius (Cylindrical)

24

LaPlace states in a blood vessel, the smaller the radius. the ________ pressure it can withstand

Smaller the radius of blood vessel, the more pressure it can withstand

25

How does surface tension act in a spherical shape?

Tension = Pressure x (Radius/2)

26

What are Surfactants?

Surface Active Agent, like soap, that reduces surface tension

27

What is Saponification?

Chemical Process of making soap from fats/oils

Soap is the salt of Fatty Acid

28

What is the Form of Soaps and Surfactants?

Polar head with Non-Polar (Hydrophobic) tail.

29

What are Micelles?

When the Non-Polar, Hydrophobic tails come together and form a sphere. This traps other greasy, water-insoluble things in the center.

30

Increase Intermolecular forces _______ viscosity

Increasing IM forces increases Viscosity