Acids, Bases, and Buffers - Quiz 1 Flashcards Preview

Spring 2020 - Chemistry & Physics > Acids, Bases, and Buffers - Quiz 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Acids, Bases, and Buffers - Quiz 1 Deck (21)
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1

Dynamic Equilibrium

  • Most chemical rxns are reversible
  • Reactants combine to give products
  • Products breakdown to give reactants

2

Le Chatelier's Principle

  • When Dynamic Equilibrium is disturbed, it will react to reestablish equilibrium
  • Nature likes being in equilibrium
  • Changing concentration, temp, etc. disturbs equilibrium
  • The system will adjust forward/backward until equilibrium

3

What happens as K increases?

Reactions tends to favor Products

4

What happens as K decreases?

Reaction tends to favor starting materials

5

What is a Bronstead Acid

Proton (Hydrogen Ion) Donor

HCl, H2SO4

6

What is a Bronstead Base

Proton (Hydrogen Ion) Acceptor

NaOH, NH3

7

Conjugate Base

When an acid donates a proton, it becomes its Conjugate Base

H (acid) --> H+  +  A-  (Conjugate Base)

8

Conjugate Acid

When a base accepts a proton, it becomes its Conjugate Acid

B (base)  +  H+  --> BH+ (conjugate acid)

9

What can behave as either an acid or a base?

Amphoteric / Amphiprotic Species

EX: H2O

10

The stronger the acid the ______ the conjugate base

Weaker

11

The weaker the acid, the ________ the conjugate base

Stronger

12

Weak Acids in Water

Weak acids do NOT ionize 100% in water

13

Weak bases and water

Weak bases establish equilibrium by accepting a proton from water

14

Buffers

Resists changes in pH

May contain weak acid and its conjugate base

 

15

Henderson-Hasselbach

Equation used to determine ratio of weak acid to its conjugate base at a given pH

When concentration of weak acid equal conjugate base, the pH = pKa

16

What happens to weak acids as pH falls?

Become more nonionized

17

What happens to weak bases as pH increases?

Weak bases become more nonionized

18

pKa of Drugs

The pKa of a weak acid or weak base is the pH at which 50% is ionized and 50% is nonionized

19

Weak Acid Drugs

Thiopental

Barbiturates

Propofol?

20

Weak Base Drugs

Lidocaine (Locals)

Morphine (Opioids)

Versed (Benzos)

Propofol?

21

Salt + Drug = Acid or Base?

 

Weak Acid

EX: Sodium pentobarbital