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Episcleritis vs scleritis 

How to differentiate 

  • episcleritis not painful (in comparison to scleritis) → but mild pain may be present


  • phenylephrine drops → used to differentiate between episcleritis and scleritis


(Phenylephrine - vasopressor - blanches the conjunctival and episcleral vessels but not the scleral vessels. If the eye redness improves after phenylephrine a diagnosis of episcleritis can be made)


How to calculate the need for maintenance fluids in kids