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Flashcards in Rapid Review Epidemiology Deck (28):

How do you interpret the following 95% CI for RR of 0.582: 95% CI 0.502, 0.673

These data are consistent with RR ranging from 0.502 to0.673 with 95% confidence


Bias introduced into study when clinician is aware of pt's Tx type

Observational bias


Bias introduced when screening detects a disease earlier and this lengthens the time from Dx to death

Lead time bias


If you want to know if geographical location affects infant mortality rate but most variation in infant mortality is predicted by socioeconomic status, than socioeconomic status is a

Confounding variable


Proportion of people who have the disease and test positive is the



SEnsitive tests have few false negatives and are used to rule --- a disease



PPD reactivity is used as a screening test because most people with TB (except those who are anergic) will have a positive PPD. HIghly sensitive or specific?

Highly sensitive for TB. Screening tests with high sensitivity are good for disease with low prevalence


Chronic disease such as SLE- higher prevalence or incidence?

Higher prevalence-
number of cases in given time period/total # in population at that time period


Epidemic such as influenza- higher prevalence or incidence?

High incidence
number of new cases/number of ppl in population at risk


Difference between incidence and prevalence?

Prevalence: percentage of cases of disease in a population at 1 snapshot in time
Incidence: percentage of new cases of disease that develop over given time period among the total population at risk


Cross sectional survey- incidence or prevalence



Cohort study- incidence or prevalence

Incidence and prevalence


Case-control study- incidence or prevalence



Describe a test that consistently gives identical results, but results are wrong

High reliability/precisions, low validity/accuracy


Difference between cohort and a case control study

Cohort: calculate RR, incidence and/or OR
Case-control: calculate OR- estimate of RR when disease prevalence is low


Attributable risk

Difference in rosk in exposed and unexposed grouops (risk that is attributable to exposure)


Relative risk

Incidence in exposed group divided by incidence in nonexposed group


Results of hypothetical study found an association between ASA intake and risk of heart disease. How do you interpret RR of 1.5?

Pts who took ASA rsk of heart disease was 1.5 times that of pts who did not take ASA


Odds ratio

Cohort: odds of developing disease in exposed group divided by odds of developing disease in nonexposed group

Case control: odds taht cases were exposed divided by odds that controls were exposed

Cross-sectional: odds that exposed group has disease divided by odds that nonexposed group has disease


Results of hypothetical study found an association between ASA intake and risk of heart disease. How do you interpret OR of 1.5?

Pts who took ASA, odds of acquiring heart disease were 1.5 times those who did not take ASA


Which pts do you initiate colorectal cancer screening early

Pts with IBD, FAP, HNPCC
Have first degree relatives with adenomatous polyps (<60 yrs of age) or colorectal cancer


Most common cancer in men and most common cause of death in men

Cancer: prostate
Death: lung


Percentage of cases within 1 SD of mean? 2 SD? 3 SD?

68%, 95.4%, 99.7%


Birth rate

Live births per 100 population in 1 year


Mortality rate

Deaths per 100 population in 1 year


Neonatal mortality rate

Death from birth to 28 d per 100 live births per year


Infant mortality rate

Number of deaths from birth to 1 yrper 1000 live births (neonatal + postnatal mortality) in 1 yr


Maternal mortality rate

Number of deaths during pregnancy to 90 days postpartum per 100,000 live births in 1 yr