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Flashcards in Pulm Deck (172)
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1

Risk factors for DVT

Stasis, endothelial injury, hypercoagulability - Virchow's triad

2

Criteria for exudative effusion

Pleural/serum protein >0.5
Pleural/serum LDH>0.6
PLeural fluid LDH >2/3 upper limit of nromal serum LDH

3

Causes exudative effusion

Leaky capillaries
-Malignancy, TB, bacterial or viral infection, PE with infarct, pancreatitis

THink inflammation

4

Causes transudative effusion

Intact capillaries
-CHF, liver or kidney disease, protein losing enteropathy

think changes in hydrostatic and oncotic P

5

Normalizing PCO2 in pt having an asthma exacerbation may indicate

Fatigue and impending respiratory failure

6

Sarcoidosis

Dyspnea
Lateral hilar LNopathy on CXR
noncaseating granulomas
Inc ACE
Hypercalcemia

7

PFT obstructive disease

Dec FEV1/FVC (<80)

8

PFT restrictive disease

Inc FEV1/FVC, dec TLC (>110)

9

Honeycomb on CXR
Tx

Diffuse interstitial pulm fibrosis
Supportive care and steroids

10

Tx SVC syndrome

Rads

11

Tx mild persistent asthma

Inhaled beta agonists and inhaled corticosteroids

12

Tx COPD exacerbation

O2, bronchoD, abx, corticosteroids with taper, smoking cessation

13

Tx chronic COPD

Smoking cessation, home O2, Beta agonist, antichol, systemic or inhaled corticosteroids, flu and pneumo vaccines

14

Acid base disorder in PE

Resp alkalosis with hypoxia and hypocarbia

15

Non Small cel lung cancer associated with hypercalcemia

SCC

16

Lung cancer w/ SIADH

Small cell lung cancer

17

Lung cancer related to cigarette

Small cell lung cancer

18

Tall caucasion man witha cute SOB
Dx
Tx

Spontaneous pneumothorax
Spontaneous regression, supplemental O2 may help

19

Tx tension pneumo

Immediate needle thoracostaomy

20

Characteristics favoring carcinoma in isolated pulm nodule

Age >45-50
Lesions new ot larger compared to old films
Absence calcification or irregular calcification
Size >2 cm
Irregular margins

21

ARDS

Hypoxemia and pulm edema with normal PCWP
Resp alkalosis

22

Sequelae asbestos exposure

Pulmonary fibrosis-->pleural plaques-->bronchogenic carcinoma (mass in lung field)-->mesothelioma (pleural mass

23

Inc risk of what infection with silicosis

TB

24

Causes hypoxemia

Right to left shunt
Hypoventilation
Low inspired O2
Diffusion defect
V/Q mismatch

25

Classic CXR findings for pulm edema

Cardiomegaly, prominent pulm vessels, Kerley B lines, bat's wing appearance of hilar shadows, perivascular and peribronchial cuffing

26

Westermark's sign and Hamptom's hump

CXR findings suggesting PE

27

Etiologies of obstructive disease

ABCT
Asthma
Bronchiectasis
CF/COPD
Tracheal or bronchial obstruction

28

Reversible airway obstruction 2/2 bronchial hyperreactivity, airway inflammation, mucous plugging, smooth mm hypertrophy

Asthma

29

pH imbalance asthma

Resp alkalosis with mild hypoxia

30

Dx asthma

Dec FEV1/FVC
Methacholine challenge- tests for bronchial hyper responsiveness