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Flashcards in Reductionism vs Holism Deck (22)
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1

What is reductionism?

Breaking down thoughts and actions into the smallest, simplest parts

2

What is holism?

The whole person as an inseparable system

3

What are the levels of explanation?

The various levels available when considering a behaviour. This debate asks whether it is appropriate to look at one level specifically or whether more than one level is appropriate

4

What are the 8 levels of explanation?

Social cognition, social groups and family, interpersonal interaction, cognition and emotion, learned associations, genetics, cellular biology, biochemistry

5

What is social cognition when a man attacks someone that killed his daughter?

The father thinking the attacker is evil and deserves to suffer for what he has done

6

What's social groups and family when a man attacks someone for killing his daughter?

The father may have seen aggressive responses to others as a child so respond in a similar way

7

What's interpersonal interaction when a man attacks someone for killing his daughter?

The father may have seen and received threats from the killer in the past

8

What's cognition and emotion when a man attacks someone for killing his daughter?

The father may react with violence because of all the extreme emotion of anger and grief

9

What's learned associations when a man attacks someone for killing his daughter?

The father may have felt that the killer should receive physical punishment for what he has done or he may have acted to an inappropriate comment without thinking because he is auditioned to do so

10

What's genetics when a man attacks someone for killing his daughter?

The father may possess the MAOA gene

11

What's cellular biology when a man attacks someone for killing his daughter?

The fathers serotonin may have been affected because serotonin is implicated in aggression

12

What's biochemistry when a man attacks someone for killing his daughter?

The father may have had alcohol in his bloodstream which reduced control and inhibitions

13

What's biological reductionism?

It explains behaviour using biological systems eg genetics, physiology of the body, brain or biochemistry. It's the most reductionist

14

What's environmental reductionism?

It simplifies a behaviour to a stimulus-response action where behaviour is learnt by association

15

What's a strength of holism?

There is evidence to support a holism approach. Zimbardos prison study could not be understood by studying the participants as individuals but the interaction between people and the behaviour of the group

16

What's two limitations of holism?

They cannot be tested scientifically and therefore research can become vague as there is a lack of empirical evidence. Also, it may not be appropriate in explaining real world problems as it may be difficult to establish the most influential basis for therapy

17

What's two strengths of reductionism?

It can be tested as there is fewer factors to consider which means that empirical work can be conduced and it can be considered as an academic subject

18

What's two limitations of reductionism?

While looking at one simple explanation others may be ignoring and underplayed. This can lead to disorders reoccurring as all the factors have not been considered. Also, the purely biological route has low validity because the complexity involved means that a combination of theories should be used

19

What's an interactive stance?

How the different levels of explanation may combine and interact

20

How does relationships relate to the holism/reductionism debate?

Biological reductionism suggests that we choose a partner due to our biological make-up. However the theories of relationship maintenance and attraction look at an interaction between two people and this is more holistic

21

How does stress relate to the holism/reductionism debate?

The role of cortisol in stress is reductionist as it suggests there's a biochemical reason. However stressors such as life changes and daily hassles take a more holistic stance considering the context the individual is in

22

How does aggression relate to the holism/reductionism debate?

The MAOA gene is biological reductionism as it can affect aggression. However it's dependent on the environment and the theory of deindividuation is a more holistic approach