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Flashcards in Refugee Crisis Deck (8):

Why was the JHA pillar created under the Maastricht Treaty?

1. Because border controls were removed, due to the single market
2. To control illegal immigration and cross-borer criminality
3. End of the Cold War - More migration from former communist states
4. 9/11
5. Growth of the internet - To combat cyber crime


What key institutional reforms were made to JHA under the Lisbon Treaty?

1. Abolition of the 3 pillars - Decisions are taken using QMV (except emergency brake procedure and police and judicial cooperation on criminal matters)
2. Art. 3 TEU - Codification + Before single market
3. Jurisdiction of the ECJ


What are the key activities with the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ)

1. Free movement of persons
2. Common immigration and asylum policy
3. Judicial cooperation in civil and criminal matters
4. European Arrest Warrant
5. Police and customs cooperation - Europe, CEPOL...
6. Combat organised crime, terrorism, drugs and human trafficking
7. Protection of FdR and combat discrimination - ECHR accession


What are the Dublin Regulations?

1. First, asylum seekers had to apply for asylum status in the MS in which they arrived
2. Now, the new relocation system takes into account population size, total GDP, average number of asylum applications and unemployment rate + Preferences of applicant
3. Creation of 'Safe States' procedure


What is Frontex/European Coast Guard Agency and Eurosur?

1. Frontex - To ensure that Europe can protect its common external borders and FdRs, to support frontline MSs on the ground
2. Eurosur - European Border Surveillance System - To surveil, coordinate and share information on cross-border control within Schengen + Bulgaria, Romania and Croatia


What were the measures taken to respond to the refugee crisis?

1. EU Turkey Deal - For every migrant sent back to Turkey, one Syrian refugee may get in + €3B
2. Hotspots - Everything is concentrated into one place (admin, housing, health services...)
3. Search & Rescue operations


What is 'Orbanisation'?

The idea that different cultural practices cannot be mixed


What is the history of migration?

1. WWII, fall of Communism, EU crisis, Arab Spring
2. 1992 - Creation of JHA
3. 1999 - EC Tampere - Common migration policy and Common European Asylum System
4. 2004 - The Hague Programme - Asylum, migration and border policy, integration, legal migration and fight against illegal employment
5. 2010 - The Stockholm Programme - Confirms The Hague Programme, common procedure and uniform asylum status