History of European Integration Flashcards Preview

SMEI 2 > History of European Integration > Flashcards

Flashcards in History of European Integration Deck (23):

1945 to 1949

1. Yalta Summit - Spheres of influence
2. European Union of Federalists - Took too long to set up
3. Truman Doctrine
4. Marshall Plan
5. The Hague Congress - A Federation of Europe is abandoned and the Council of Europe is created
6. IAR is created to supervise the Ruhr Region


1950 to 1954 (After Hague Congress, before Messina)

1. Korean War
2. Schuman Plan - To put in common the Coal and Steel supplies
3. ECSC is created in 1951 - Under supervision of the HA, the Council of Ministers and a Parliamentary Assembly
4. Pleven Plan - EDC - Because NATO is compromised due to Korea
5. EDC requires EPC - Failed because FR did not want GR to re-arm - Not passed by the Assemblée Nationale


What were the opinions of the MS regarding the Schuman Plan?

1. FR - Monnet wanted a common market but thought it was too fast yet. The Ruhr Region produced steel (= weapons) and was controlled by the IAR - This was a way to keep control over GR
2. GR - To gain international acceptance, to get rid of IAR and to protect itself from the USSR
3. Benelux - Too small to stay out, reduced chances of war (geographical position)
4. IT - To rebuild its reputation (western capitalist identity) and to protect itself from Communism
5. UK - Not defeated during the power - Not interested
6. US - Pushed for it, wanted a supranational body to control C&S


1955 to 1959 (After ECSC, before Acceleration agreement)

1. Messina - Monnet wants to create a common market (GR is good, FR is not good but changes gov.)
2. Algerian War + Suez Canal
3. USSR invades Hungary
4. FR wants the Treaties of Rome to include CAP, French colonies and nuclear energy
5. Treaties of Rome - Euratom and EEC


1960 to 1964 (After the Treaties of Rome, before the empty-chair crisis)

1. Acceleration agreement - For the achievement of the customs union and CAP
2. De Gaulle is here
3. Fouchet Plan - Agreement between the big 6 of foreign policy
4. De Gaulle vetoes BR membership - Fouchet Plan fails


1965 to 1969 (after Fouchet Plan, before dark ages of the EU)

1. Empty-chair crisis - De Gaulle does not want to increase the powers of the EP
2. Luxembourg Compromise - 'A state can exercise veto if its vital national interests are at stake'
3. Hague Summit


1970 to 1974 (after Hague Summit, before Fontainebleau)

1. Oil crisis in the US - Recession
2. Dark ages of the EU
3. EC is institutionalised


1975 to 1979

1. First EP elections


1980 to 1984 (After dark ages, before Delors)

1. Greece joins - Because it is now a democracy
2. Fontainebleau


1985 to 1989 (after Fontainebleau, before TEU)

1. Delors' Commission - White Paper on the Completion of the Internal Market - To get rid of internal barriers
2. SEA
3. Spain and Portugal join
4. Delors Report - 3 stages to complete the EMU
5. Collapse of the USSR


What were the reasons behind the SEA?

1. To compete with Japan and the US
2. To have a spillover effect in other areas
3. Pressure from the European Round Table of Industrialists
4. Introduction of QMV
5. Big Idea to relaunch European Integration


1990 to 1994 (After Delors, before Eastern Europe)

1. 2 IGCs - Common monetary policy and common political policy
2. TEU
3. EMU - 2nd stage begins - EMI, Stability and Growth Pact, ERM crisis


What are the main key features of the TEU?

1. 3 pillars - 1st = EC = Pooled sovereignty / 2nd and 3rd = CFSP and JHA = Intergovernmental cooperation
2. EC now becomes EU
3. Introduction of the Single Currency
4. Political Union
5. More power to the EP
6. Introduces the idea of European citizenship - 4 freedoms
7. Thatcher - A treaty too far?


1995 to 1999 (After TEU, before Nice Treaty)

1. Austria, Finland and Sweden join
2. IGC on Eastern European enlargement
3. British beef crisis - Major blocks everything - Change of gov. - Blair does not block everything but guarantees control of boarders
4. Treaty of Amsterdam
5. Santer Commission - Corruption accusations and resignation
6. Euro is in operation from 1999 to 2001


What are the key features of the Amsterdam Treaty?

1. No agreements on institutional reforms
2. No extension of QMV
3. Introduction of enhanced cooperation
4. Introduction of constructive abstention - Abstain instead of veto and you won't have to contribute to the action
5. Complete freedom of movement is introduced (except for UK and IR)
6. Copenhagen criterion to join the EMU


2000 to 2004 (After €, before Constitutional Treaty)

1. Nice Treaty
2. Laeken Declaration on the Future of Europe - Prepares a EU Constitution
3. Euro is officially the single currency
4. 10 new easter MS
5. Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe is signed by HoG


2005 to 2009

1. FR and NL reject the Constitutional Treaty in referendum
2. BR decides to not even try
3. New EP elections - Lowest turnout
4. Romania and Bulgaria join
5. Lisbon Treaty - Get rid of the symbolic parts, no more 3 pillars, TEC = TFEU, no ratification by referendum
6. 1st President of EC - Herman von Rompuy
7. 1st HRFA - Catherine Ashton
8. Greece reveals its fiscal position


2010 to now

1. EU obtains Nobel Prize
2. Cameron promises Brexit referendum
3. 2015 - Beginning of the Refugee Crisis
4. Brexit vote on 23rd of June 2016
5. 60th Anniversary of the Treaty of Rome


What was decided in The Hague Summit?

1. To relaunch European Integration
2. Complete - Should have its own budget, internal market is completed in 1978
3. Widen - BR, IR and DN join in 1973
4. Deepen - EMU is pushed (snake-in-the-tunnel) + EPC (successful, common position in the Middle-East, unity in UN, Venice Declaration on the rights of Palestinians)


What happened in Fontainebleau?

1. British Budget Crisis
2. It is agreed to cut back on agriculture expenditure and the increase the Community's budget through an increase in VAT contributions
3. New commitment to the internal market


What were the different MSs opinion on the Easter Enlargement?

1. GR wants to protect its boarders
2. BR supports for peace and to avoid a federation
3. South is scared that it will shift the balance of power to the North + Wants to introduce institutional reforms


What are the Copenhagen criterion?

1. General government deficit relative to GDP must not exceed 3%
2. Gross government debt must not exceed 60% GDP


What was decided in the Nice Treaty?

1. Nbr of Commissioners is diminished
2. Number of MePs is max. 732
3. QMV (majority of weighted votes, majority of MS and 62% population)