Flashcards in Religion and Social Change Deck (15)
How can religion be seen as a conservative force (2 reasons)
1. Religion is seen as traditional by possessing traditional beliefs of how society should be run that cannot be changed
2. Conserves and preserves society as the way things are, maintaining the status quo
Examples of how religion holds conservative beliefs
Catholic church forbids abortions, same-sex marriage and contraception.
Favour patriarchal roles in family, role of bride is to "love, honour and obey" but husband role is only "love and honour"
Functionalist view of religion as conservative force
Functions to maintain stability of society preventing society from disintegrating
Marxist view of religion as conservative force
Ideology that supports ruling class only, only in interest of ruling class, maintaining status quo
Feminist view of religion as conservative force
Daly - Ideology that suppresses women, maintaining status quo. Patriarchy goes unchallenged and cannot be changed.
What major social change did Calvinism bring
Constructed modern capitalism, brought about democracy
Outline Calvinist Beliefs and explain how they relate to capitalism
1. Predestination - God decides who is to be saved and there is nothing anybody can do to change this
2. Divine Transcendence- God has ultimate knowledge and power over people that no human could possibly claim
3. Asceticism- Self-discipline and denial to devoting their lives to God and not spending any of their luxuries on themselves but to reinvest it to their work.
4. Calling- Constant, methodical work to prove themselves, producing a work ethic
No work could earn salvation = salvation panic because they did not know whether or not they had been chosen to be saved or not.
Criticisms of Weber theory
Capitalism created roles in calvinism. In Eastern World, other religions do not encourage capitalism
American Civil Rights Movement (sociologist, how it promoted social change)
Black clergy shamed white clergy
MLK used sacred texts to shame white religious followers ie "Love thy neighbour"
This promoted social change and ended racial segregation in America by the end of 90s
What is New Christian Right and why were they uncessful
1. Fundamentalist christian group
2. No social change occurred because values of group did not align with values of wider society.
What is Relative Autonomy
Partly independent of the economic base of society, religion has a dual character by acting as a force for change and stability
Describe how religion has a dual character.
Bloch argues religion has a dual character because it provides people with the principle of hope to promote social change and religion has been used and been successful to promote social change ie MLK movement however it is still a conservative force.
What is liberation theology
Movement in El Salvador where the W/C protested against abuse they were receiving from ruling class ie poor living conditions
Was revolutionary beause they had support from organic intellects ie priests who had more power/authority in society
Result: Democratic country
Gramsci concept to explain the way thats ruling class use religion to maintain control. Ideological domination.