Renal Flashcards Preview

DIT > Renal > Flashcards

Flashcards in Renal Deck (77)
Loading flashcards...
1

stimuli that induce renin release

B-adrenergic stimulation (sympathetic tone)
low Na in DCT (macula densa)
low pressure in afferent arteriole

2

body water

60% body weight
1/3 extracellular, 1/4 of that is plasma

3

glomerular filtration barrier

fenestrated capillary epithelium
BM with heparan sulfate (- charge)
podocyte foot processes

4

Renal formulas

CL=UV/P
GFR=UV/P (inulin or creatinine)
RPF=UP/V (PAH)
Filtration fraction=GFR/RPF
Filtered load=GFR*Px
Excretion rate=V*Ux
Reabsorption=filtered-excreted
Secretion=excreted-filtered

5

effect of NSAIDS on kidney

inhibit PG (normally dilate afferent arterioles)
so constrict afferent arteriole:
decreases RBF and GFR, so FF stays the same

6

site of excretion of organic anions and cations

PCT

7

site of isotonic fluid reabsorption

PCT

8

gout+intellectual disability+lip-biting

Lesch-Nyhan syndrome

9

Psammoma bodies

Papillary adenocarcinoma of thyroid
serous cystadenocarcinoma of ovary
meningioma
mesothelioma

10

function of distal tubule

Principal cells: reabsorb H2O and Na
secrete K
Intercalated: secrete H or HCO
reabsorb K

11

two types of intercalated cells

alpha (a cells): secrete H ions
beta (B cells): secrete HCO3

12

effect of aldosterone on collecting duct

principal cells: increase reabsorption of Na and secretion of K
intercalated: increases secretion of H

13

acute pulmonary edema

loop diuretic

14

idiopathic hypercalciuria (calcium stones)

thiazide
avoid loop (increase Ca excretion)

15

glaucoma

mannitol or acetazolamide

16

mild to moderate CHF with expanded ECV

loop

17

conjunction with loop or thiazide to spare K

K sparing

18

edema associated with nephrotic syndrome

loop

19

increased intracranial pressure

mannitol

20

mild to moderate HTN

thiazide

21

hypercalcemia

loop

22

hyperaldosteronism

spironolactone or eplerenone (ald antagonists)

23

heart failure pt with sulfa allergy

ethacrynic acid

24

peaked t waves

hyperkalemia

25

tetany

hypocalcemia, hypomagnesia

26

arrythmias

hypo/hyper K, hypomagnesia

27

decreased deep tendon reflexes

hypermagnesia

28

flattened T waves, U waves on EKG

hypokalemia

29

diagnostic features of DI

polyuria
decreased SG and osmolarity of urine
water deprivation test: no increase in urine osmolarity
desmopressin:
central if urine osmolarity increases
nephrogenic if urine osmolarity stays the same

30

factors cause hyperkalemia

Digitalis
B antagonists
acidoses
decreased insulin
hyperosmolariy
cell lysis
ACE inhibitors and K sparing