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Flashcards in Renal Deck (14)
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1

Mannitol

1) Use: Shock, drug overdose
2) Class/MOA: Osmotic diuretic
3) Side effects/ADEs: Pulmonary edema, dehydration, CHF, contraindicated in anuria
4) Fun Facts:

2

Acetazolamide

1) Use: Glaucoma, urinary alkalinization, metabolic alkalosis, altitude sickness
2) Class/MOA: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, prevents bicarb reabsorption in PCT
3) Side effects/ADEs: hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, neuropathy, NH3 toxicity, sulfa allergy
4) Fun Facts: ACIDazolamide causes ACIDosis

3

Furosemide

1) Use: Edema (CHF, cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome, pulmonary edema), HTN, hypercalcemia
2) Class/MOA: Loop diuretic. Inhibits cotransport system (Na, K, 2Cl) of thick ascnding limb, preventing solutes from entering medulla. Prevents concentration of urine. Stimulates PGE release for vasodilation. Increases calcium release.
3) Side effects/ADEs: OH DANG! (Ototoxicity, hypokalameia, dehydration, allergy-sulfa, nephritis, gout)
4) Fun Facts: Inhibited by NSAIDS

4

Ethacrynic acid

1) Use: Diuresis for people with sulfa allergies
2) Class/MOA: Phenoxyacetic acid derivative. Inhibits Na, K, Cl cotransporter in ascending limb
3) Side effects/ADEs: OH DANG! (Same as furosemide)
4) Fun Facts: Same MOA as furosemide. Can be used in hyperuricemia

5

Hydrochlorothiazide

1) Use: HTN, CHF, idiopathic hypercalciuria, nephrogenic DI
2) Class/MOA: Inhibits NaCl reabsorption in early DCT, limiting diluting capacity. Decrease calcium excretion.
3) Side effects/ADEs: HyperGLUC (hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, hpercalcemia). Hypokalemic matabolic alkalosis, hyponatremia, sulfa allergy.
4) Fun Facts:

6

Spironolactone

1) Use: Hyperaldosteronism, K+ depletion, CHF
2) Class/MOA: K+ sparing diuretic. Spironolactone is a competitive aldosterone receptor antagonist in cortical collecting duct.
3) Side effects/ADEs: Hyperkalemia (arrhythmias), endocrine effects (gynecomastia and other androgen effects)
4) Fun Facts: The K+ STAys (Spironolactone, triamterene, amiloride)

7

Triamterene

1) Use: Hyperaldosteronism, K+ depletion, CHF
2) Class/MOA: K+ sparing diuretic. Triamterene and amiloride block Na channel in CCT.
3) Side effects/ADEs: Hyperkalemia (arrhythmias), endocrine effects (gynecomastia and other androgen effects)
4) Fun Facts: The K+ STAys (Spironolactone, triamterene, amiloride)

8

Amiloride

1) Use: Hyperaldosteronism, K+ depletion, CHF
2) Class/MOA: K+ sparing diuretic. Triamterene and amiloride block Na channel in CCT.
3) Side effects/ADEs: Hyperkalemia (arrhythmias), endocrine effects (gynecomastia and other androgen effects)
4) Fun Facts: The K+ STAys (Spironolactone, triamterene, amiloride)

9

Captopril

1) Use: HTN, CHF, diabetic renal disease, prevent heart remodeling from HTN
2) Class/MOA: Inhibit ACE to reduce angiotensin II/bradykinin and vasodilation. Renin release increases
3) Side effects/ADEs: CAPTOPRIL (Cough, Angioedema, Proteinuira, Taste changes, hypOtension, Pregnancy problems, Rash, Increased renin, Lower ATII) Hyperkalemia. Avoid with bilateral renal artery stenosis becauase ACE inhibitors reduce GFR.
4) Fun Facts: ATII receptor blockers (sartans) are similar to these without the cough.

10

Enalapril

1) Use: HTN, CHF, diabetic renal disease, prevent heart remodeling from HTN
2) Class/MOA: Inhibit ACE to reduce angiotensin II/bradykinin and vasodilation. Renin release increases
3) Side effects/ADEs: CAPTOPRIL (Cough, Angioedema, Proteinuira, Taste changes, hypOtension, Pregnancy problems, Rash, Increased renin, Lower ATII) Hyperkalemia. Avoid with bilateral renal artery stenosis becauase ACE inhibitors reduce GFR.
4) Fun Facts: ATII receptor blockers (sartans) are similar to these without the cough.

11

Lisinopril

1) Use: HTN, CHF, diabetic renal disease, prevent heart remodeling from HTN
2) Class/MOA: Inhibit ACE to reduce angiotensin II/bradykinin and vasodilation. Renin release increases
3) Side effects/ADEs: CAPTOPRIL (Cough, Angioedema, Proteinuira, Taste changes, hypOtension, Pregnancy problems, Rash, Increased renin, Lower ATII) Hyperkalemia. Avoid with bilateral renal artery stenosis becauase ACE inhibitors reduce GFR.
4) Fun Facts: ATII receptor blockers (sartans) are similar to these without the cough.

12

What do all diuretics do to serum/urine NaCl?

Increase NaCl in urine. Decrease NaCl in serum

13

What do all diuretics do to serum/urine K?

Increase urine K. Decrease serum K

14

What do all loop diuretics vs thiazides do to urine calcium?

Loop diuretics increase it. thiazides decrease it from enhanced paracellular calcium reabsorption in PCT and loop of henle.