Renal failure And AKI/ARF Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Renal failure And AKI/ARF Deck (30)
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1

state the anatomical location of the kidneys

L1-L3

2

Which kidney is lower the right or the left ?

Right because of the liver

3

State the 4 functions of the kidney 😭

1. Filters blood, i.e 1) excretes metabolic waste, 2) regulates composition of blood and volume
2. EPO- Red bloods cells
3. Renin- regulates BP
4. Active Vitamin D production: 1,25-DHC

4

State the 3 ways in which the kidneys filter the blood

1. Filtration
2. Reabsorption
3. Secretion

5

State the function of the ureter

Carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder

6

State the the function of the bladder

Stores urines. Urine enters from the ureters and exits from the urethra

7

LOOK at Sum notes for anatomy

Ok

8

What are the 3 commonest causes of renal failure ?

SIN:
Sepsis
Ischaemia
Nephrotoxins

9

What 2 things are the pre-renal causes of renal failure based on ?

1) sudden drop in BP, i.e, renal hypoperfusion due to haemorrhage
2) obstruction of the kidneys

10

What are the 2 groups that the pre-renal causes of a sudden drop in BP (Renal hypo-perfusion) and state the cause of each

1) shock: hypovalemic(burns), septic, cardiogenic (MI)
2) drugs: diuretics

11

What are the pre-renal causes of renal failure based on obstruction of the kidneys
? (3) 😭

RDT
1) renal artery stenosis
2) Drugs: ACEis and NSAIDS
3) Thrombosis/Emboli due to AF, MI, IE, aneurysms etc

12

State the 4 groups that the renal causes of RF can be grouped into ?

1. Tubular 2. Interstitial 3. Glomerular 4.Vascular

13

State the main tubular renal/AKI cause that leads to RF ?

Acute tubular necrosis (ATN)

14

State the 2 main causes of ATN that lead to AKI

1) pre-renal damage
2)nephrotoxins e.g. Aminoglycosides

15

State the 5 other renal causes of tubular damage/AKI that lead to RF ?

1. Radiological contrast
2. Myoglobinea in rhabdomyosis
3. Crystal damage
4. Myeloma
5. Hypercalcaemia

16

State the renal causes of interstitial damage that lead to RF

Due to infiltrative disorders
1) TB
2) Lymphoma
3) tumour lysis syndrome following chemotherapy

17

State the renal causes of glomerular damage that lead to RF (3) 😭

Due to autoimmune disorders
1. SLE
2. HTP
3. Glomerulonephritis

18

State the 2 groups that the renal causes of vascular damage can be spilt into and state the causes of each 😭

1. Large vessel: RA/V thrombosis/emboli
2. Small vessel: vasculitis

19

State the 3 groups that the post-renal causes of RF can be grouped into

1.luminal
2.mural
3.extrinsic compression

20

State the post-renal causes of RF based on the 3 groups

1.luminal: stones and clots
2.mural: malignancy (bladder, prostate, ureter); BPH, strictures
3.extrinsic compression: 1. Pelvic malignancy, 2. Retroperitoneal fibrosis

21

List the common causes of AKI

Renal tubular Causes (main and others) and pre-renal causes

22

What is ARF ? 😭*2

ARF is an abrupt deterioration of parencyhmal renal function, which is reversible

23

What 2 things is the decrease in renal function in ARF characterised by ?

1. Oliguria 2.Uraemia

24

The biochemical features of ARF can be spilt into 2 groups, what are they ?

1. Raised serum creatinine and loss of urine output
2. Electrolyte imbalance

25

What 3 things contribute to electrolyte imbalance?

1. Hyperkalaemia and hyperphosphataemia
2. Hyponatraemia (due to overdrinking) and hypocalacaemia (due to decrease in Vit D production)
3. Metabolic acidosis (decrease in HCO3- secretion)

26

For the clinical feature of ARF(uraemia), what are 6 groups it can be grouped into ?

1. Kidneys
2. Neurology
3.Cardiology
4.Respiratory
5. Skin
6. Abdominal

27

State the Clinical features of ARF
Seen in the kidneys , neuro, cardio, resp, skin and abdo

Kidneys: 1. Oliguria/anuria, 2.renal bruits
Neuro: 1confusion
Cardio: 1.pericarditis
Resp: 1.SOB (due to pulmonary oedema)
Skin: pruritus and bruishing(haemorrhage)
Abdo: 1. anorexia/ weight loss 2.nausea and vomiting

28

What may be palpable in ARF ?

Kidneys, bladder, prostate, pelvis etc

29

List the 6 life threatening complications of ARF 😭

1. Non renal organ failure
2. Sepsis related to AKI
3. FCP (fitting,Coma and Pericarditis/pneumonitis) due to uraemia
4. Pulmonary oedema
5. Metabolic acidosis and tetany
6. Cardiac arrhythmias due to hyperkalaemia

30

What does uraemia cause

FCP: fitting, coma and pericarditis/pneumonitis