Chronic kidney Disease Flashcards Preview

Renal and Urological Conditions > Chronic kidney Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chronic kidney Disease Deck (12)
Loading flashcards...
1

When do symptoms in chronic renal failure become apparent ?

Symptoms become apparent urea exceeds 40mM

2

What 2 symptoms do you get when urea >50-60mM ? 😭

Clouding of the mind and myoclonic twitches

3

What are the signs and symptoms of chronic renal failure ?
😭

Oliguria/Anuria and ; 3Cs MAIN
3Cs: confusion, coma and convulsions
Malaise and lethargy
Anorexia and weight loss
Insomnia
Nausea and vomiting

4

List the 6 systemic complications that may develop in a patient with longstanding CRF

1. Hypertension and secondary hyperparathyroidism
2. Hypocalcaemia
3. FCP due to uraemia
4. Metabolic acidosis
5. Anaemia (due to decrease in EPO)
6. Cardiac arrhythmia's

5

Describe the assessment of CKD using GFR

Stage 1: kidney damage with increased or normal GFR>90
Stage 2: kidney damage with mild decrease in GFR 60-89
Stage 3: moderate decrease in GFR 30-59
Stage 3a: GFR 45-59
Stage 3b: GFR 30-44
Stage 4: severe decrease in GFR 15-29
Stage 5: kidney failure:GFR <15

6

List the common causes of CKD

DUG HIPPO
Diabetes
Unknown(idiopathic)
Glomerulonepritis

Hypertension and; Renal artery stenosis
Intestinal nephritis
PKD (autosomal dominant)
Pyelonephritis (chronic)
Obstructive uropathy

7

State the 5 investigations used for CKD

Urine, Bloods, basic imaging, advanced imaging and renal biopsy

8

Describe the investigations for CKD done with urine

Urine: urinedipstick MC + S: microscopy
Albumin:creatinine ratio, creatinine:protein ratio

9

Describe the investigations for CKD done with bloods

(6) Blood:
1) FBC (normochromic and normocyctic anaemia)
2. Increase in ESR (vasculitis/SLE)
3. U and Es including decrease in calcium and increase in phosphate
4. Glucose (DM)
5. Increase in PTH if stage 3 CKD
6. Increase in ALP if renal osteodystrophy

10

Describe the investigations for CKD done with basic imaging

Basic imaging: USS to check the normal size and anatomy of the kidneys

11

Describe the investigations for CKD done with advanced imaging

Advanced imaging: CT/MRI

12

Describe the investigations for CKD done with renal biopsy

Renal biopsy done if:
Rapidly progressing
Unclear cause
Normal sized kidneys