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Flashcards in Renal Lecture Deck (23)
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1

Common Presenting Complaints for Renal Disorders

Disorders of micturition
Disorders of urine volume
Alterations in urine composition
Loin/flank pain
Oedema
Hypertension (due to impairment of the renin-angiotensin system)

2

What is the difference between polyuria and diuresis?

Polyuria: production of abnormally large volumes of dilute urine.
Diuresis: increased or excessive production of urine.

3

Having to pee more often and producing lots of urine (polyuria) could be due to:

- Increased fluid intake (polydipsia)
- Decreased ADH and/or ADH sensitivity
- Solute diuresis (eg: glucose in DM or urea in chronic renal failure)

4

Having to pee more often but still producing normal amounts of urine could be due to:

Inflammation (UTI)
Tumour (prostate/bladder cancer or benign prostatic hyperplasia)
Urinary calculi
Reduced bladder capacity

5

What are some characteristics of poor flow of urination?

Poor flow with weak stream
Difficulty stopping and starting

6

What could be the likely cause of poor flow of urine?

Prostate enlargement (in men) or urethral/
detrusor muscle constricture

7

What is Dysuria?

Pain during urination

8

Having to Pee lots with pain could be...

cystitis or urethritis

9

Having to pee with alot of pain and rectal and perineal pain could be....

prostatitis

10

Dysuria Red Flags

Fever
Flank pain or tenderness
Immunocompromised patient
Recurrent episodes (including frequent childhood infections)
Known urinary tract abnormality
Male

11

What is the difference between olig,poly and an-uria?

Polyuria = production of abnormally large volumes of dilute urine (>3L of urine per day)
Oliguria = production of abnormally small amounts of urine (<500mL/day)
Anuria = failure of the kidneys to produce urine. (100mL/day)

12

What could abnormally small amounts of urine (oliguria) lead to?

- Lead to increased concentrations of urea and creatinine
- Indicates development of acute kidney injury

13

What could cause a person to not produce any urine? (Anuria)

Renal tract obstruction
Renal artery occlusion
Cortical necrosis
Inflammatory glomerular disease

14

What are the most common causes of haematuria?

UTIs, prostatitis or urinary calculi (in adults)

15

Haematuria at the end of urination suggests...

bladder or prostate bleeding

16

What is Haematuria

the presence of blood in urine.

17

Visible haematuria at the start of urination suggests..

Urethral bleeding

18

Haematuria Red Flags

Significant amounts of blood
Persistent microscopic haematuria, especially in older patients
Age > 50
Hypertension and oedema
Fever
Night sweats
Weight loss

19

Sudden, severe and colicky, often radiating to the groin, scrotum or labia suggests....

Acute renal obstruction

20

Localised renal angle pain suggests.....

Acute pyelonephritis

21

Diaphragm or psoas muscle irritation could suggest....

Peri-renal abscess

22

Uraemia Red Flags

Anorexia, vomiting, nausea, weight-loss
Restless limbs
Fatigue/weakness
Reduced mental acuity
Loss of concentration
Pruritus
Abnormal sense of touch
HA
Sleep disturbance
Abnormal taste
Sexual dysfunction

23

What is Uraemia?

Raised level of urea and other nitrogenous components in the blood which should have been excreted by the kidneys