Flashcards in Representations - Gender, Sexuality, Disability Deck (23)
TUCHMAN ET AL - The under-representation of women: limited social skills and achievement: LOOKS AND SEX APPEAL MORE IMPORTANT!
Turnstall - women in media seen as sex objects (male gaze - Mulvey), busy housewives - IGNORES THAT OVER HALF WORK!
Men rarely seen in sexual way, mostly powerful positions.
Media perpetuate slimness = successful, happiness and popularity.
= girls and women unhappy with their bodies = EATING DISORDER! :((
5 mins exposure to thin and beautiful women = low self-esteem and comparison.
The internet helps destabilise patriarchy = allows women to explore, create new ID's.
EXAMPLE: everdaysexism.com = useful tools for challenging neg media of women.
Criticism of plant - media empowers women...
Women increased subject of rape and murder threats - online trolls.
MR of Masculinity... children now:
CHILDREN NOW - Asked boys aged 10 to 17 their thoughts of male characters in media:
- funny, confident, successful
- rarely cry
- normally work place.
80% of MR of males were negative, 20% focused on a feminine side of men - METROSEXUAL MALE!
Liberal fem perspective on MR
Media is slow to show women's achievement - 'CULTURAL LAG'; Women rarely achieving high positions in media.
Marxist fem perspective on MR
Media creates 'false needs' around beauty, size and shape. Created by advertise revenue - auidence demand = more advertising.
Radical fem perspective on MR
> FALSE CONSCIOUSNESS
Media cons women into a 'beauty myth'; see these goals to pressure their personal happiness, shape, sexiness - creates FALSE CONSCIOUSNESS
Postmordernist perspective of MR
Challenges tradition, creates new ID's and lifestyles.
Plurarlist perspective of MR
Public demand, what the audience wants to see.
Batchelor et al
Media showed gay in a neg light - bullying and teasing.
Batchelor et al
Media has limitations to sexual health info:
1. contraception seen as women's responsibility
2. Men = boast about sex
women = emotions
3. lack of positive images of lesbian and gay teenagers.
What does dyer say about sexuality in the media?
The media have conducted stereotypical ‘signs of gayness’
Stonewall Research on LGBTQ+
STONEWALL RESEARCH -
Out of 126hrs only 5hr focused on LGBTQ+: ONLY 46 MINS REALISTIC AND POSITIVE!
What is the pink pound?
(can be used as a criticism)
The amount of money media owners use to target the LGBTQ+ community - estimated £6billion each year.
What do the LGBTQ+ community think of Media?
Internet is USER-GENERATED - constructed supportive LGBTQ+ media sites
EXAMPLE: LGBTQ+ police website.
More bullying and online trolling.
(MR of disability)
Media shows them as:
- Sinister and evil (baddy in a film)
- Super-cripples (sixth sense)
Pluralist view of MR of disability
Media mirrors social anxiety about impairment. However, does show COURAGE from disabled individuals.
The social construction theory
Impaired individuals are disabled by society and media!
1. sees disability as unhealthy, tragic.
2. Prejudice - disability fear everything the 'normal' dread.
3. Journalists - Disables are incapable if leading a 'normal life': low status, oppression, inequality.