Reproductive - Breast pathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Reproductive - Breast pathology Deck (28)
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1

Acute Mastitis

P: Erythematous breast with purulent nipple discharge; absess formation

M: Fissure in nipple from breast feeding -> S. aureus enters

Tx: continued drainage and antibiotics (dicloxacillin)

2

Periductal Mastitis

P: subareolar mass with nipple retraction

M: smokers with low vitamin A -> squamous metaplasia of lactiferous ducts -> duct blockage and inflammation

3

Mammary Duct Ectasia

P: periareolar mass with green-brown nipple discharge (inflammatory debris), multiparous postmenopausal women
Biopsy: Chronic inflammation with plasma cells

M: dilation of subareolar ducts

4

Fat Necrosis

P: Painless mass on exam or abnormal calcification on mammography (saponification)
Biopsy: necrotic fat with associated calcification and giant cells

M: trauma (many not reported) -> necrosis of fat

5

Fibrocystic Disease

P: lumpy breast, usually in upper outer quadrant

M: development of fibrosis and cysts in breast

Benign, but some (ductal hyperplasia, sclerosing adenosis, atypical hyperplasia) are associated with increased risk for invasive carcinoma to both breasts

6

Fibrocystic Changes: Fibrosis

Hyperplasia of breast stroma
No increase risk for invasive carcinoma

7

Fibrocystic Changes: Cystic

Fluid-filled, blue dome. Ductal dilation
No increase risk for invasive carcinoma

8

Fibrocystic Changes: Sclerosing adenosis

Increased acini and intralobular fibrosis; calcifications
2x increased risk for invasive carcinoma to both breasts

9

Fibrocystic Changes: Apocrine metaplasia

Apocrine phenotype changes
No increase risk for invasive carcinoma

10

Fibrocystic Changes: Atypical epithelial hyperplasia

Increased number of epithelial cell layers in terminal duct lobule
5x increased risk for invasive carcinoma to both breasts
In women > 30 years of age

11

Intraductal Papilloma

P: Serous or blood nipple discharge in premenopasual woman

M: papillary growth of luminal and myoepithelial cells into large laciferous ducts. Typically beneath aerola

Slight increased risk for carcinoma with age
Suspect papillary carcinoma (no underlying myoepithelial cells) in post-menopausal women

12

Fibroadenoma

P: well circumscribed, marble-like mass in premenopausal woman
Most common benign neoplasm of the breast

M: tumor of fibrous tissue and glands
Estrogen sensitive - growth and tenderness during pregnancy and menstruation

No increased risk of carcinoma

13

Phyllodes tumor

P: large bulky mass in post-menopausal women (60s)

M: fibroadenoma-like tumor with overgrowth of fibrous component
Biopsy: "Leaf-like" projections

Can be malignant in some cases

14

Breast cancer epidemiology

Most common carcinoma in woman (excludes skin)
2nd most common cause of cancer mortality in women

15

Breast cancer risk factors

Gender
Age (postmenopausal, except hereditary)
Early menarche/late menopause
Obesity
Atypical hyperplasia
First-degree relatives (mother, sister, daughter) with breast cancer

16

Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS)

P: calcification on mammography; no mass
(other calcifications include sclerosing adenosis and fat necrosis)

M: malignant proliferation of cells in ducts -> fills ductal lumen

No basement membrane penetration

17

Comedocarcinoma

Subtype of DCIS
P: high-grade cells with necrosis and dystrophic calcifications in center of ducts

18

Paget's diseasse

Subtype of DCIS
P: eczematous patches on nipple; ulceration and erythema

M: DCIS extends up the ducts into skin of nipple
Paget cells: large cells in epidermis with clear halo
(also seen in vulva)

19

Invasive ductal carcinoma

P: physical exam (>2cm) or mammography (>1cm)
firm, fibrous, "rock-hard" mass with sharp margins and small, glandular, duct-like cells. Classic "stellate" morphology.

M: invasive carcinoma that forms duct-like structures; dimpling of skin or retraction of nipple

Worst and most invasive (most - 76% of breast cancers)

4 subtypes: tubular, mucinous, medullary, inflammatory

20

Tubular carcinoma

Subtype of ductal carcinoma
P: premenopausal
M: well-differentiated tubules that lack myoepithelial cells

good prognosis

21

Mucinous carcinoma

Subtype of ductal carcinoma
P: older women (70s)

Abundant extracellular mucin ("tumor cells floating in mucus pool")

Good prognosis

22

Medullary carcinoma

Subtype of ductal carcinoma
P: BRCA1 carriers, well-circumscribed mass that can mimic fibroadenoma on mammography

M: large, high-grade cells with lymphocytes and plasma cells (fleshy, cellular, lymphocytic infiltrates)

Good prognosis

23

Inflammatory carcinoma

Subtype of ductal carcinoma
P: inflamed, swollen breast; can be mistaken for acute mastitis
Peau d'orange (breast skin resembles orange peel)

M: carcinoma in dermal lymphatics -> block drainage

Poor prognosis (50% at 5 years)

24

Lobar Carcinoma in Situ (LCIS)

P: no mass or calcifications; incidental finding on biopsy

M: malignant proliferation of cells in lobules with no invasion of basement membrane
Lack E-cadherin adhesion protein
Often multifocal and bilateral

Tx: tamoxifen to reduce risk of subsequent carcinoma

Low risk of progression to invasive carcinoma

25

Invasive lobular carcinoma

P: bilateral with multiple lesions in same locations
Single-file pattern cells may exhibit signet-ring morphology (Indian file)

Loss of E-cadherin

26

What is the best prognostic factor for breast cancer staging (TNM)

Metastasis (but many present before)
Spread to axillary lymph nodes most useful (sentinel lymph node biopsy)

Predictive factors for treatment response:
ER, PR, and Her2/neu gene amplication

Triple negative tumors - African American, poor prognosis

27

BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations

Multiple first-degree relatives with breast cancer, premenopausal tumor, multiple tumors

BRCA 1: breast and ovarian carcinoma
BRCA 2: male breast cancer

Risk remains after bilateral mastectomy (axilla or subcutaneous tissue of chest wall)

28

Male Breast Cancer

P: subareolar mass in older males; nipple discharge (1% of all breast cancers)

M: invasive ductal carcinoma (lobular is rare because male develop few lobules)

Associated with BRCA2 and Kleinfelter syndrome