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Flashcards in Respiratory - Anatomy Deck (39)
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1

What are the two zones of the respiratory tree?

Conducting and Respiratory zones

2

What does the conducting zone of the respiratory tree consists of?

Large airways of nose, pharynx, trachea, and bronchi Small airways of bronchioles and terminal bronchioles

3

Function of conducting zone

warms, humidifies, and filters air does NOT participate in gas exchange

4

What is the anatomic dead space?

Conducting zone (where gas exchange does not happen)

5

What special histological features extend to the end of bronchi?

Cartilage Goblet cells

6

Histology of oropharynx, laryngopharynx, anterior epiglottis and upper half of the posterior epiglottis, vocal folds?

Stratified squamous epithelium

7

Histology of conducting zone to the end of terminal bronchioles

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar cells (nose, paranasal sinus, most of larynx, tracheobronchial tree) Beat mucus up and out of lung Smooth muscle of airway walls

8

What is the respiratory zone?

lung parenchyma
Consisting of respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and alveoli

9

Function of the respiratory zone

gas exchange

10

Histology of the respiratory zone

Cuboidal cells in respiratory bronchioles Simple squamous cells up to alveoli (No cilia - only up to respiratory bronchioles

11

Function of alveolar macrophages

Clear debris and participate in immune response

12

What are type I pneumocyte cells?

Thin cells that line the alveoli (squamous) for gas diffusion

13

97% of alveolar surfaces are covered by?

Type I pneumocyte cells

14

What are type II pneumocyte cells?

Secrete pulmonary surfactant to prevent atelectasis Also the precursors to type I and other type II cells

 

15

Histology of type II pneumocyte cells

cuboidal and clustered

16

What cells proliferate during lung damage?

Type II pneumocyte cells (regenerates the tissue)

17

What are clara cells?

nonciliated columnar cells with secretory granules secrete component of surfact and degrade toxins - act as reserve cells

18

What is LaPlace's law?

P = 2T/r (P = collapsing pressure, T=tension, r=radius)

19

Under LaPlace's law, do larger or smaller alveoli tend to collapse and why?

Smaller radius tend to collapse as pressure increases (e.g. tendency to collapse on expiration as radius decreases)

20

What is pulmonary surfactant made of?

Mix of lecithins (most important is dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine)

21

When does surfactant synthesis begins?

Week 26 of gestation Mature level are not achieved until around week 35

22

What value indicates fetal lung maturity?

lecithin to sphingomyelin ratio > 2.0 in amniotic fluid

23

How many lobes of lung on left and right?

3 lobes on right

2 lobes on left (+ lingua)

24

What is the homologue of right middle lobe on the left side?

Lingula

25

Which lung is the more common site for inhaled foreign body? Why?

Right lobe

Right main stem bronchus is wider and more vertical than the left

26

If you aspirate a peanut while upright, where would you expect to find it?

Lower portion of right inferior lobe

27

If you aspirate a peanut while supine, where would you expect to find it?

Superior portion of right inferior lobe

28

What is the relationship of the pulmonary artery to the bronchus on the left and right side?

[RALS]
Right side - Anterior to main stem bronchus
Left side - Superior to main stem bronchus

29

Injury to the 5th intercostal space at mid-clavicular line would damage which structure?

Left lung

(Left ventricle forms apex and reach as far as the 5th space. All other chambers lie medial to the left midclavicular line)

30

What are the fissures of the lung on the right and left side?

Right side: Horizontal fissure (superior and middle lobes); Oblique fissure (middle and inferior lobes)
Left side: oblique fissure (superior and inferior lobes)