Respiratory - Pathology Flashcards Preview

USMLE > Respiratory - Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory - Pathology Deck (172)
Loading flashcards...
1

Rhinitis: Mechanism and Presentation

Inflammation of nasal mucosa

Sneezing, congestion, runny nose

2

What is the most common cause of rhinitis?

Adenovirus

3

Allergic Rhinitis: Mechanism. What type of hypersensitivity?

Type I hypersensitivity (e.g. to pollen) Subtype of rhinitis

4

Allergic Rhinitis: Histology

Inflammatory infiltrate with eosinophils

5

What is allergic rhinitis associated with?

Asthma and eczema

6

Nasal polyp: Mechanism and Causes

Protrussion of edematous, inflamed nasal mucosa

Repeated rhinitis, cystic fibrosis and aspirin-intolerant asthma

7

What is the triad of aspirin-intolerant asthma?

Asthma, Aspirin-induced bronchospasm, nasal polyps

Seen in 10% of asthmatic adults

8

What is a nasopharynx angiofibroma?

benign tumor of nasal mucosa of large blood vessels and fibrous tissues, classically seen in adolescent males Present with profuse epistaxis

9

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

malignant tumor of nasopharyngeal epithelium often involves cervical lymph nodes

10

What is nasopharyngeal carcinoma associated with? Which population?

EBV African children and Chinese adults

11

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: biopsy

pleomorphic keratin-positive epithelial cells (poorly differentiated SCC) in background of lymphocytes

12

Acute epiglottis: Presentation

Inflammation of epiglottis

Fever, sore throat, drooling with dysphagia, muffled voice, inspiratory stridor, risk of airway obstruction

13

What is the most common cause of acute epiglottis?

H. flu type b Especially in nonimmunized children

14

Laryngotracheobronchitis (Croup)

Inflammation of upper airway

Presents with hoarse, "barking" cough and inspiratory stridor

15

What is the most common cause of laryngotracheobronchitis?

Parainfluenza virus

16

What is a singer's nodule?

Vocal cord nodule - arise on true vocal cord

Presents with hoarseness; resolves with resting of voice

17

What is the cause of a vocal cord nodule?

Excessive use of vocal cord, usually bilateral

18

Vocal cord nodule: histology

degenerative (myxoid) connective tissue

19

Laryngeal papilloma

Benign papillary tumor of vocal cord Presents with hoarseness

20

What is the common cause of laryngeal papilloma?

HPV 6 and 11

21

How are laryngeal papillomas presented in children vs adults?

Children - multiple Adults - single

22

Laryngeal carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinoma usually from epithelial lining of vocal cord

Presents with hoarseness, other sings include cough and stridor

23

Risk factors for laryngeal carcinoma

alcohol and tobacco

Rarely arise from laryngeal papilloma

24

What is choanal atresia?

Unilateral or bilateral bony septum between nose and pharynx

Newborn cannot breath through nose; cyanosis when breast-feeding and pink up after crying

25

What is the most common polyp in adults?

Allergic polyp

26

What test to order when a child has nasal polyps?

Sweat test to rule out cystic fibrosis

27

Obstructive sleep apnea: laboratory findings

Respiratory acidosis and hypoxemia

28

Obstructive sleep apnea: complications

Risk for developing cor pulmonale

29

Diagnosis for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Polysomnography: confirmatory test that documents period of apnea during sleep

30

What is the most common sinus infection in adults?

maxillary sinusitis