Flashcards in Reproductive Pathology Deck (70)
Most common male reproductive tumors are found in .......
testes, prostate, penis
Define cryptorchidism, and what could be the causes?
Failure of normal descent of intra abdominal testes into the scrotum
* Causes could be mechanical, hormonal, or just congenital
* Bilateral cryptorchidism causes infertility
Most of testicular tumors are ........ Most are caused by ......
germ cell tumors
* Most common in men 15-34 years of age (older than this, and it could be lymphoma)
* Caused by cryptorchidism, infection, trauma, genetic facors
* Usually painless enlargement, but with potential to disseminate
Leydig cell tumors are ......
* In children, they cause feminization or musculinization. In adults, it caused gynecomastia
* Leydig cells produce androgens, estrogens, or corticosteroids
Sertoli cell tumors are mostly ......
benign (over 90%)
* Usually no endocrine changes with these tumors
Testicular lymphoma mostly occurs in .....
* Rarely confined to the testes
Mumps rarely leads to sterility. T/F??
Gonorrhea may spread to .....
prostate, seminal vesicles, and epididymis
* Rarely to the testes
* Caused by Neisseria gonorrhea
Syphilis rarely leads to sterility. T/F??
* Testes involvement may occur, which leads to sterility
TB of the testes usually occur in the ......., with the classical finding being .....
Non specific testicular inflammation usually caused by ......
Torsion of the spermatic cord causes .....
compromise of the arterial and venous supply
* If not corrected, it results in infarction
BPH (hyperplasia) is ......
formation of large nodules in the median lobe, that may cause obstruction of urethral canal
* Common after 45
* Causes secondary smooth muscle hypertrophy of bladder
Prostate cancer may present with .....
urinary problems, or a palpable mass on rectal exam
* Tumor is age and race related. Under endocrine and environmental influences
Prostate cancer usually spreads to .....
* An elderly man with osteoblastic metastases should be screened for prostate cancer
Staging for prostate cancer depends on ......
size, degree of infiltration of local tissue, degree of metastases
High PSA with enlarged prostate is suggestive of .......
Survival of prostate cancer is related to ..... & ......
stage and grade
* Most of patients present with advanced disease
Acute prostatitis is the result of ......
the extension of bacterial infection from the posterior urethra or bladder
Chronic prostatitis is the result of .....
recurrent UTI in men
* Could be bacterial or non bacterial (Ureaplasma & Chlamydia trachomatis)
Chancroid is caused by ........., while syphilis is caused by .........
* Chancroid is different from chancers (of syphilis) although they share the same features
Breast cancer is .....
The main risk factor is ........
the second most common cause of cancer death in women
* The most important risk factor is family history (A-D) of defective BRCA1 & 2 (tumor suppressor genes)
* Nulliparity is also a risk factor, but not like family history
Acute endometritis is usually caused by .....
Group A beta hemolytic streptococci and staphylococci
* Usually following childbirth of abortion
Chronic endometritis is associated with .....
use of intrauterine devices, TB, pelvic inflammation, or post abortion
What are the most common locations?
Ectopic endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity
* Common in ovaries, uterine ligaments, rectovaginal septum, pelvic peritoneum, vagina, vulva, and appendix
* Usually there is infertility (due to fibrosis of tubes and ovaries)
Endometriosis is characterized by ........
1. Cyclic bleeding from the ectopic endometrial tissue, resulting in brown filled spaces "chocolate cysts"
2. Painful intercourse (dyspareunia)
3. Pelvic pain
4. Pain on defecation, dysuria, inability to conceive
Endometrial hyperplasia could be caused by ........, ........, ......
1. Prolonged estrogen therapy (may cause a well differentiated adenocarcinoma, which regresses after stopping the therapy)
2. Ovarian tumors
3. Adrenocortical hyperfunction
* There could be excessive uterine bleeding
Endometrial polyps are ........, occur during .......
3 cm sessile/pedunculated masses
perimenopausal or postmenopausal period
* Usually present with uterine bleeding
Endometrial carcinoma is associated with .....
diabetes, obesity, hypertension, infertility, prolonged estrogen therapy
* There could be contiguous growth into the surrounding structure.
* Blood and lymph spread is possible