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Flashcards in Reproductive Pathology Deck (70)
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1

Most common male reproductive tumors are found in .......

testes, prostate, penis

2

Define cryptorchidism, and what could be the causes?

Failure of normal descent of intra abdominal testes into the scrotum
* Causes could be mechanical, hormonal, or just congenital
* Bilateral cryptorchidism causes infertility

3

Most of testicular tumors are ........ Most are caused by ......

germ cell tumors
* Most common in men 15-34 years of age (older than this, and it could be lymphoma)
* Caused by cryptorchidism, infection, trauma, genetic facors
* Usually painless enlargement, but with potential to disseminate

4

Leydig cell tumors are ......

benign
* In children, they cause feminization or musculinization. In adults, it caused gynecomastia
* Leydig cells produce androgens, estrogens, or corticosteroids

5

Sertoli cell tumors are mostly ......

benign (over 90%)
* Usually no endocrine changes with these tumors

6

Testicular lymphoma mostly occurs in .....

elderly men
* Rarely confined to the testes

7

Mumps rarely leads to sterility. T/F??

True

8

Gonorrhea may spread to .....

prostate, seminal vesicles, and epididymis
* Rarely to the testes
* Caused by Neisseria gonorrhea

9

Syphilis rarely leads to sterility. T/F??

False
* Testes involvement may occur, which leads to sterility

10

TB of the testes usually occur in the ......., with the classical finding being .....

epididymis
caseating granulomas

11

Non specific testicular inflammation usually caused by ......

Chlamydia trachomatis

12

Torsion of the spermatic cord causes .....

compromise of the arterial and venous supply
* If not corrected, it results in infarction

13

BPH (hyperplasia) is ......

formation of large nodules in the median lobe, that may cause obstruction of urethral canal
* Common after 45
* Causes secondary smooth muscle hypertrophy of bladder

14

Prostate cancer may present with .....

urinary problems, or a palpable mass on rectal exam
* Tumor is age and race related. Under endocrine and environmental influences

15

Prostate cancer usually spreads to .....

bone
* An elderly man with osteoblastic metastases should be screened for prostate cancer

16

Staging for prostate cancer depends on ......

size, degree of infiltration of local tissue, degree of metastases

17

High PSA with enlarged prostate is suggestive of .......

prostate cancer

18

Survival of prostate cancer is related to ..... & ......

stage and grade
* Most of patients present with advanced disease

19

Acute prostatitis is the result of ......

the extension of bacterial infection from the posterior urethra or bladder

20

Chronic prostatitis is the result of .....

recurrent UTI in men
* Could be bacterial or non bacterial (Ureaplasma & Chlamydia trachomatis)

21

Chancroid is caused by ........., while syphilis is caused by .........

Haemuphilus ducreyi
Tremponema pallidum
* Chancroid is different from chancers (of syphilis) although they share the same features

22

Breast cancer is .....
The main risk factor is ........

the second most common cause of cancer death in women
* The most important risk factor is family history (A-D) of defective BRCA1 & 2 (tumor suppressor genes)
* Nulliparity is also a risk factor, but not like family history

23

Acute endometritis is usually caused by .....

Group A beta hemolytic streptococci and staphylococci
* Usually following childbirth of abortion

24

Chronic endometritis is associated with .....

use of intrauterine devices, TB, pelvic inflammation, or post abortion

25

Define endometriosis
What are the most common locations?

Ectopic endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity
* Common in ovaries, uterine ligaments, rectovaginal septum, pelvic peritoneum, vagina, vulva, and appendix
* Usually there is infertility (due to fibrosis of tubes and ovaries)

26

Endometriosis is characterized by ........

1. Cyclic bleeding from the ectopic endometrial tissue, resulting in brown filled spaces "chocolate cysts"
2. Painful intercourse (dyspareunia)
3. Pelvic pain
4. Pain on defecation, dysuria, inability to conceive

27

Endometrial hyperplasia could be caused by ........, ........, ......

1. Prolonged estrogen therapy (may cause a well differentiated adenocarcinoma, which regresses after stopping the therapy)
2. Ovarian tumors
3. Adrenocortical hyperfunction

* There could be excessive uterine bleeding

28

Endometrial polyps are ........, occur during .......

3 cm sessile/pedunculated masses
perimenopausal or postmenopausal period
* Usually present with uterine bleeding

29

Endometrial carcinoma is associated with .....

diabetes, obesity, hypertension, infertility, prolonged estrogen therapy
* There could be contiguous growth into the surrounding structure.
* Blood and lymph spread is possible

30

Endometrial carcinoma is seen (microscopically) as .......

adenocarcinomas showing glandular pattern with varying degree of differentiation