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Flashcards in GIT pathology Deck (98)
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Cleft lip and palate are treated within ......

first 6 months of life


Enamel hypoplasia is ....... caused by ......
Characterized by ....

* defect in enamel formation
* caused by dysfunction of ameloblast, low Ca, hypoparathyroidism & hypothyroidism
* Features: horizontal lines of discolored pitted indentations.
* Other causes include low Vit A, C, D, and syphilis (which cause defect in ameloblasts and odontoblasts. Examples are Hutchinsons incisors & Mulberry molars)


Pigmentation of developing teeth may be caused by ......, ......

tetracycline, bilirubin and hemolytic anemia
* No tetracyclin for pregnant and children under 9 year of age


Pyorrhea is ......



Aphthous ulcer is usually associated with ....

ulcerative colitis
* also called canker sores
* usually appear in fibrile illness (sudden fever of unexplained origin)


Vitamine B deficiency leads to ......

atrophic glossitis (because of reduced cell division in the squamous mucuosa)


Gingivitis and increased vascularity in pregnancy is caused by .....

hormonal change


Pernicious anemia causes smooth red tongue due to ......

squamous atrophy


Diabetes formed abscess is the result of .....

poor circulation
* There is also gingivitis and periodontitis. Wound healing is slow


Kopliks spots are .....

tiny white specks on a red base found on the buccal mucosa
* It is a symptom of Measles


Strawberry tongue is a feature of ....., ..... & .....

kawasaki disease, toxic shock syndrome, and scarlet fever


ANUG produces ......

crater like depressions at the gingival margin
* It is painful, causing bad odor
* The main cause is spirochete & Fusobacteria infection


Herpetic gingivostomatitis is caused by .....

herpes simplex virus
* High fever with mucosal lesions


Oral thrush is caused by .....

candida albicans, associated with impaired immunity. Common in AIDS patients or chemotherapy.
* White adherent patches.
* May also occur after antibiotic treatment


Leukoplakia is .....

hyperkeratosis of the epithelium.
* 10% of the lesions have dysplasia, which is precancerous
* Predisposing factors include tobacco, alcohol, chronic friction, and irritants


Hairy leukoplakia is .....

wrinkled patches on the sides of the tongue. Associated with HIV, papilloma and EBV
* Malignant transformation is rare


Erythroplakia has low risk of malignant transformation. T/F??

* lesions appear flat, smooth and red
* There is severe epithelial dysplasia (precancerous)
* Lesion usually in the floor of the mouth, on tongue, or palate


Squamous cell carcinoma mostly occur on .....

lower lip, but may occur any where in the mouth
* associated with tobacco and alcohol use
* Lesion may be papillary or ulcerative


Sialolithiasis is .....

formation of stone in the duct of salivary glands. May cause secondary inflammation and obstructions


Sialadenitis is .....

inflammation of the salivary glands.
* Could be caused by infection (mumps) or autoimmune (Sjogren syndrome)


Tumors of the parotid gland is mostly ....., while those of the submandibular gland are ....



Esophagitis is caused by ....

1. Reflux esophagitis
2. Irritants
3. Infections: include herpes, CMV, C. Albicans


Barret's esophagus is caused by .....

chronic esophageal reflux
* gastric epithelium replaces the normal squamous epithelium of the esophagus
* Premalignant


Hiatal hernia is ......

herniation of the abdominal esophagus, the stomach, or both through a tear in the diaphragm
* Treated with: Ca channel blockers, botox, pneumatic dilation


What is the relation between the esophageal varices and the portal hypertension?

Liver cirrhosis causes portal hypertension, blood then seeks an alternative path, which is going to be through the coronary veins (left gastric veins), esophageal venous plexus, and then to the azygous vein
* Esophageal varices bleeding is more significant than bleeding from mallory weiss tears


What are the causes of esophageal tumor?

alcohol, smoking, Barret's, nitrosamines in food, webs, rings, achalasia, diverticula, Vit. deficiency (A, C, B2)
* Prognosis is poor.
* Metastasis to the liver & lung
* Most cancers are SCC. Adenocarcinomas are mostly from Barret's


Pyloric stenosis is .....

Congenital hypertrophy of the pyloric sphincter
* Features: projectile vomiting 3-4 weeks after birth, with palpable mass in the epigastric region


Diaphragm hernia is caused by ....

weakness in or absence of parts of the diaphragm, allowing herniation of the abdominal contents into the thorax


What are the types of gastritis?

1. Acute (erosive): NSAIDs, smoking, steroids all cause disruption of the mucosal barrier
2. Chronic (non erosive): which could be fundal (Type A, often autoimmune in origin and is associated with pernicious anemia). Antral (Type B, caused by Helicobacter pylori, is the most common form)


Gastritis may predispose to peptic ulcer disease. T/F

* probably related to H. pylori infection