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Flashcards in Reptiles Deck (101)
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1

Which bacterial skin disease is common in aquatic turtles

Septicaemic cutaneous ulcerative Disease (SCUD)

2

What is pyramidal growth syndrome in Chelonia and why does it occur?

Shell scutes grow to be pyramid shaped and raised

Due to low humidity, excess protein and calories

3

Which toxicity seen in juvenile Chelonia causes shell Abnormalities?

Fluroquinolones

4

What does a diet low in Vit A for carnivores or B carotene for herbivores cause

Hypovitsminosis A

5

Which reptile spp is hypovitaminosis A most common in

Aquatic Chelonia, leopard geckos, old world chameleons

6

How might a chelonia with hypovitaminosis A present

Anorexic
Resp. Sx
Difficulty shedding
Swollen eyelids

7

Why do chelonia with hypovitaminosis A have trouble shedding?

Pathogenesis of Disease = multifocal squamous metaplasia and hyperkeratosis

8

Which disease is often associated with hypovitaminosis A in Chelonia

Aural abscesses

9

How do aural abscesses in Chelonia present

Abscesses under auricular scutes containing thick or solid pus, well encapsulated

10

How are aural abscesses Tx in chelonia

Lance under GA and remove purulent material, leave wound open and pack with honey

11

What two types of beak deformities are seen in Chelonia and what can cause them

Prognathism or brachygnathism

Splits or traumatic damage

12

What causes stomatitis in Chelonia

Chelonian Herpes Virus with secondary bacterial infection

13

What is stomatitis related to in Chelonia

URT infection and poor husbandry incl. low temp, poor hygiene

14

Which two spp most commonly cause URT disease in Chelonia

Chelonian Herpes Virus
Mycoplasma agassizzi

15

What factors is URT disease associated with in Chelonia

Stress
High stocking density
Poor hygiene
Inadequate temp
Hypovitaminosis A
Stomatitis

16

Mycoplasma agassizzi causes URT rhinitis in Chelonia. What does it cause in snakes and alligators

Tracheitis in snakes
Polyarthritis in alligators

17

How is Mycoplasma agassizzi infection Tx in Chelonia

Macrolides or tetracyclines

18

What type of lesion is Chelonia Herpes Virus associated with

Mucocutaneous lesiosn

19

How is Chelonian Herpes Virus spread and in which animal is disease seen

Spread by direct contact

Causes disease in stressed or immunocompromised animals

20

Which spp of tortoise is most susceptible to. Chelonian Herpes Virus

Horsefields

21

What is pneumonia in Chelonia commonly an extension of

URT disease

22

Which deficiency may be an underlying factor is pneumonia in Chelonia and why

Hypovitaminosis A

Epithelial lining of the resp system may be compromised

23

What is the most common reason a chelonia May be presented to the vet

Anorexia

24

What is of concern in tortoises with anorexia

Refeeding Syndrome e

25

What is the pathogenesis of hepatic lipidosis in Chelonia

Increase in intra-hepatic fat which adversely affects hepatic function

26

In which animals is chelonia hepatic lipidosis most common

Obese / those that excessively eat
Females that are cycling but not breeding

27

How might a chelonia with hepatic lipidosis present

Reduced activity and appetite, cachexia, ascites, D+,

28

What is seen on Dx with hepatic lipidosis in Chelonia

Hepatomegaly
Heterophilia +/- monocytosis
Increased GGT, AAT and lactate

29

How is hepatic lipidosis in Chelonia definitively Dx

Liver biopsy

30

How is hepatic lipidosis in Chelonia Tx

Fluid therapy, nutritional support, nutritional supplements

31

What are the two main endoparasites spp I chelonia

Oxyurids
Flagellates

32

Which urolith is most common in Chelonia

Urates

33

What is urolithiasis most associated with in Chelonia

Periods of dehydration

34

What is the most common presenting Sx of urolithiasis in Chelonia

Difficulty walking

35

What is post ovulatory stasis in Chelonia

Follicles ovulated and become eggs in salpinx
Salpinx either not stimulated to lay or is unable to respond to stimulations to lay = become egg bound

36

How is post ovulatory stasis of Chelonia Tx

Propranolol to prime the salpinx then oxytocin - will result in laying unless obstructive dystocia present

37

In terms of normal physiological function, reptiles are unable to concentrate urine. Why

They have no loop of henle, only cortical nephrons

38

How does the Renal portal system work in reptiles and why is it important to appreciate?

Blood from caudal kidneys can be diverted too or from the kidneys - at times the kidneys have both arterial and venous supply

Portal system provides venous blood to the tubule cells to keep them alive in times of water deprivation or alterations in blood flow

Relevance = site of IM drug admin

39

What conditions are associated with cloacal collapse in all reptiles

HypoCa
Poor husbandry or nutrition
Egg laying
Parasitic Enteritis
Bacterial Enteritis

40

Which tortoise spp hibernate and which don’t

Hibernate = testudo spp and box turtles
Don’t = geochelone spp and hinge back turtles

41

What stimulates hibernation in tortoises

Changes in temp and reducing photoperiod

42

What advice should be given to tortoise owners for hibernation

When the tortoise starts to slow down...
Withdraw food
Bathe daily
Reduce temp to 5 degree over 2-4wk
= gut now empty and well hydrated
Place in hibernaculum - ensure temp regulation and air circulation

43

What should be monitored whilst a tortoise is hibernating and what should these measurements inform

Monitor weight weekly to monthly
> 10% loss or animal urinates = wake up early

44

How is a tortoise woken up from hibernation

Warm animal up over 24hrs and bathe frequently

45

How soon after waking up from hibernation should a tortoise eat

Within 24-48hrs

46

What are the two main injuries a tortoise may get from hibernation

Retinal detachment if hibernated at too low temp
Frostbite of extremities

47

What is dysecdysis

Retained shed

48

What might dysecdysis in lizards result in

Spectacle retention
Rings of retained skin may act as tourniquets = digit loss, hemipene prolapse

49

What is the cause of dysecdysis

Lack of humidity and other environmental factors

50

How is dysecdysis Tx

Soak squamates to facilitate removal
AntiB for secondary infections
Consider thyroxine supplementation

51

What are the main mite spp in lizards

Ophinoyssus natricis = snake mite
Hirstiella spp = trombiculid Mites

52

Which fungus commonly affects bearded dragons

CAN-V = yellow fungus disease

53

How does CAN-V affect bearded dragons

Skin or systemic infection
Blisters, progressive crusting, Hyperkeratosis, epidermal necrosis

54

Other than bearded dragons, is CAN-V seen in any other reptile spp

Also reported in snakes
Mostly bearded dragons and chameleons

55

What are the main risk factors for CAN-V infection and how is it spread

Skin damage
Stress
Poor husbandry
Immunosuppression

Spread via direct contact or airborne

56

How is CAN-V infection in reptiles Tx

Debridement of skin lesions
Topical and oral Tx = terbinafine, voriconazole, itraconozole

57

What is the prognosis of CAN-V infection

Guarded - often fatal

58

What is metabolic bone disease

Cause = nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism - Deficiency Vit D / Ca, incorrect Ca to phos ratio, inadequate UV light provision OR Renal secondary hyperparathyroidism

Persistent hypoCa = increased PTH production = resorption of Ca from bones

59

Which lizards are most likely to show Sx of metabolic bone disease and what are the main Sx

Juvenile or reproductively active females

Rubber jaw, pathological f#, paralysis, cloacal prolapse, bloating, constipation, osteodystrophy

60

How does the cause of metabolic bone disease tend to differ between juvenile and adult lizards

Juveniles = nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism

Adults = renal secondary hyperparathyroidism

61

What deficiency is metabolic bone disease in lizards related to

Hypovitaminosis C

62

How is metabolic bone disease and hypoCa Tx in lizards

Stabilise patient
Correct husbandry or nutritional issues
Warm to POTZ and provides fluids as required
Ca gluconate IV or SC if muscle fasiculations - monitor for cardiac effects
Oral Ca supplementation
Vit D injections once a week
Calcitonin

63

What is pre ovulatory follicular stasis in
Lizards

Follicles not stimulated to ovulate = remain in ovary = resorbed OR become necrotic OR ovulate secondary to environmental or medical intervention

64

What is pre ovulatory follicular stasis in lizards a predisposing factor to

Hepatic lipidosis

65

How is pre ovulatory follicular stasis in lizards Tx

hCG or access to Male to stimulate ovulation

Ovariosalpingotomy if systemic illness and follicles appear static

66

What is post ovulatory ovostasis in reptiles

Follicles are ovulated = eggs enter salpinx = unable to lay

67

How can post ovulatory ovostasis in lizards be Tx

Ca then oxytocin

Ovariosalpingotomy

68

What is hemipene impaction in Male lizards associated with

Dysecdysis

69

What is gout in lizards

Over production of or failure to excrete uric acid = hyperuricaemia = systemic and localised deposition of uric acid crystals

70

What factors are associated with gout in lizards

High protein diets
Low humidity
Dehydration
Lack of water provision

71

How might gout in lizards appear on Rx

Swollen radiolucent joints

Radiodense joints = pseudogout = over supplementation with Ca or Vit D

72

How is gout Tx in lizards

Fluid therapy
Diuretics - furosemide
Allopurinol
Analgesia

73

What does adenovirus infection cause in lizards

Hepatitis
Enteritis
Nephritis
Bone marrow suppression
Meningitis

74

Which animals are at most risk from lizard adenovirus

Seen most commonly in bearded dragons and chameleons

Young, old, immune compromised

75

What is the most common neoplasm seen in bearded dragons and how do they present

Gastric neuroendocrine Carcinoma

Anorexia
V+
Anaemia
Hyperglycaemia

76

Why are the clinical Sx of gastric neuroendocrine Carcinoma in bearded dragons vague

Tumours have neuroendocrine granules within neoplastic cells - release somatostatin, insulin, glucagon, gastrin, pancreatic polypeptide, intestinal peptide etc

77

If a snake is star gazing, what does it suggest

Normal CNS function inhibited = a symptom

78

What is loss of righting reflex of a snake when placed in dorsal recumbency a symptom of

Discontinuity of spinal cords ability to transmit neural impulses OR an inability of the muscles to respond

79

What might a generalised lack of muscle tone be related to in snakes

A non specific sign - neurological disease, musculoskeletal disease of systemic disease

80

What is thyroid disease in snakes related to

Improper light cycles, improper hibernation and temp gradients

Iodine toxicity or deficiency

81

Why Sx is hypothyroidism associated with in snakes

Weight gain
Lethargy
Poor appetite
Depression
Dysecdysis
Goitre
Myxoedema

82

How many times per year do snakes normally shed

Between 4 and 6 times

83

How are retained spectacles in snakes Tx

Wetting solution e.g. lacrilube for a few days to increase humidity around scales
Use of fine forceps to gently grasp the edge

84

Why do snakes often get thermal burns

Their dermal perception of heat is poor

85

What are thermal burns often secondary to in snakes

Inadequate ambient temp with focal heat sources e.g. hot rocks or unguarded lamps

86

What can be used to protect thermal burns on snakes whilst they heal

Clingfilm, clear dressings

87

What is blister disease in snakes

Dermatitis caused by bacterial skin infection leading to blisters under the scales which are fluid filled

Rupture of the blisters = ulceration

88

What is blister disease in snakes associated with

Poor environmental hygiene and immunosuppression

89

What is the most common cause of GI disease in snakes

Cryptosporidium Serpentes

90

What does crypto in snakes cause

Gastric hypertrophy
Abdominal swelling
Regurgitation of mucus covered prey which may be sporadic
Weight loss

91

How does entamoeba invadena cause Disease in snakes

Commensal in herbivorous reptiles
Invasion of intestinal mucosa = GI disease in carnivorous reptiles

Mostly seen with mixed reptile collections

92

What are the main Sx of entamoebiasis infection in snakes and how is it Tx

Poor BCS
Anorexia
Regurgitation
Constipation
D+
Neuro Sx

Metronidazole

93

In which spp of snake is respiratory disease most common

Larger spp e.g. boas, pythons

94

What is paraphimosis

Inability to retract phallus or hemipenes

95

In which reptile spp is paraphimosis most common

Ball pythons
Boa constrictors
Chelonia

96

What are the main risk factors for paraphimosis in reptiles

Spinal trauma
Nutrition secondary hyperparathyroidism
Excessive breeding in snakes
Hypovitaminosis A

97

What causes inclusion body disease in snakes, which spp are most at risk, what condition is it associated with and how might a snake present

Retrovirus

Boas, pythons

Mite infestations

Neurological disease, presence of inclusion bodies on Histo - often fatal

98

What viral infection is common in viperid snakes

Paramyxovirus

99

What does paramyxovirus infection cause in snakes

Resp Sx including pneumonia

100

What virus in snakes is associated with pneumonia and encephalitis

Reovirus

101

Which bacterial infection in snakes is a public health concern and why

Salmonellosis
Zoonotic