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Flashcards in General Deck (28)
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1

Very few drugs are L in exotics. What are your options?

A. Use a L drug
B. Use a drug listed on the Small Animal Exemption Scheme
C. Off cascade

2

What can you use to sex lizards?

Hemipenile bulge
Femoral pores
Sexual dimorphism - different colours, Spurs

3

What can be used to sex snakes?

Pop the hemipene out the vent
Probing - 14 scales in males, just sent gland in females
Pinging - feeling for hemipenes

4

What can be used to sex Chelonia?

Tail length
Plastron concavity
Width of anal scutes
Carapacial shape
Palpation of intromittent organ (phallus)

5

What can be used to sex birds?

Behaviour or egg laying
Sexual dimorphism e.g. plumage colour
Vent sexing
DNA sexing
Imaging

6

What can be used to sex small mammals?

Size - particularly in ferrets
External genitalia incl. genito-anal distance, extrusion of penis or palpation of testes, os penis in mustelids, teats in some spp

7

How can a male Syrian or golden hamster be ID?

A prominent flank scent gland

8

How can rabbits be sexed?

Penis = circular shape
Vulva = slit shape

9

What is the normal temp range for birds?

40-42

10

What is the normal temp range for small furries?

36.5-40

11

What is the normal temp range for hedgehogs?

35-37

12

Why is surgical neutering contraindicated in ferrets?

Linked to adrenal disease

13

What can happen if a female ferret is not mated?

Induced ovulators
Oestrogen toxicity - pancytopenia

14

What are the two vaccines in rabbits

Myxomatosis
RHD-1/2

15

What are the two vaccines in ferrets

Distemper - not L, used under cascade
Rabies - pet passport scheme

16

What vaccine can be used in guinea pigs?

Bordetella

17

What vaccine for birds is available in the USA / Canada?

Polyoma Virus

18

Which vaccines are available for reptiles and amphibians?

None

19

Why should tortoises be bathed regularly throughout hibernation?

Use their full bladder as a water source

20

Where are microchips placed in birds? Penguins?

Birds = LHS pectoral
Penguins = SC at base of neck

21

Where are microchips placed in Chelonia and lizards? Snakes?

Chelonia and lizards = LHL
Snakes = LHS 3 head spaces back from head OR LHS cloaca

22

What is the maintenance fluid requirement for small mammals?

75-100ml/kg/d

23

What is the maintenance fluid requirement of birds?

50ml/kg/d

24

What is the maintenance fluid requirement of reptiles?

10-30ml/kg/d

25

Over what period of time should fluid deficit be replaced in reptiles cf. birds and mammals?

Reptiles = 48-96hrs
Birds and mammals = 24-48hrs

26

For oxygen therapy, what % should be used in reptiles and birds cf. mammals? Why?

30-50% cf. 100% in mammals

Stimulation for respiration in birds and reptiles is hypercapnia NOT hypoxia

27

Which veins are used for IV access in
A. Rabbits
B. Rodents
C. Birds
D. Lizards
E. Snakes
F. Chelonia

A. Cephalic, lat. saphenous, marginal auricular
B. Cephalic, lat. saphenous, jug, lat. tail
C. Medial tarsal, basilic, R jug
D. Ventral tail, cephalic, jug, ventral abdo
E. Ventral tail, R jug
F. Jug, dorsal tail

28

Birds and reptiles respond differently to opioids cf. mammals - why? Which receptors do birds and reptiles have?

Have a different variety of opiate receptors

Birds = kappa mostly
Reptiles = kappa and other similar to mammalian Mu