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Flashcards in Birds Deck (46)
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1

What causes metabolic bone disease in birds?

HypoCa due to nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism

2

What are the main Sx of metabolic bone disease in birds?

Muscle fasciculations
Weakness
Tremors
Pathological fractures
Bone growth deformities

3

Other than nutritional causes of metabolic bone disease, what are the two other potential causes in birds

UV-b
Chronic egg laying

4

What is the pathogenesis of hepatic lipidosis in birds

Accumulation of triglycerides in the liver secondary to other conditions

5

What are the main risk factors for hepatic lipidosis in birds

High fat or high protein diet
Overfeeding neonates
Nutrient deficiency
Reduced exercise
Hereditary
Active egg laying
DM
Stress
Thyroid disease
Obesity

6

What are the main Sx of hepatic lipidosis in birds

Dyspnoea
Poor liver function
Generally a sick bird

7

How does DM differ in raptors cf. psittacine birds

Raptors - absolute lack of insulin production = hyperglycaemia

Psittacines - elevated blood glucose related to overproduction glucagon cf. underproduction of insulin

8

How is DM Tx in birds

Low carb diet with exogenous insulin to override the effects of ++ glucagon

9

In which bird spp is thyroid disease common

Budgies

10

What is the main Sx of a testicular sertoli tumour in a budgie

Brown hypertrophy of the cere
Lameness on the affected side due to sciatic nerve impingement

11

What are salt gland and which exotic spp are they seen in

Seen in birds

Extra renal pathway for salt excretion when ++ NaCl has been consumed

12

What is the excretory product of birds urinary system

Uric acid

13

How does gout occur in birds

Uric acid = end stage protein metabolism
Levels in blood exceed solubility threshold = uric acid crystals = deposited on surface of internal organs and within joints

14

How is gout Tx in birds

aggressive fluid therapy
Diuretics
Dietary modification

15

What does egg yolk Peritonitis occur secondary to in birds

Ectopic ovulation - infundibulum of salpinx is not attached to ovary - ovulated eggs can go astray

16

What is chronic egg production in birds due to

Over nutrition
Over bonding with owner
Early egg removal
Extended photoperiod

17

What condition is a common sequel to reproductive disease in Male and female birds

Cloacal prolapse

18

What is the most common URT disease in birds

Sinusitis

19

How can sinusitis be Dx in birds

Facial / nares region deformed with periocular swelling
Oculonasal discharge
Dyspnoea

20

What is the main pathogen that causes LRT disease in birds

Aspergillosis

21

How might a bird with aspergillosis present

Dyspnoea
Inappetence
Lethargy
Reluctance to fly or perch

22

How is aspergillosis Tx in birds

Intensive initial stabilisation
Anti-fungal medication
Consider euth - only 50% survive
Antibiotics - secondary infection common

23

What anti-fungal medication for Tx of aspergillosis is contraindicated in grey parrots, name a suitable alternative

Itraconozole

Alternative = voriconazole

24

What causes Teflon toxicity in birds

Inhalation of fluoridated has produced when PTFE is heated above 240 degree e.g. cooking, ironing

25

What does Teflon toxicity in birds cause and what are the main Sx

Causes pulmonary oedema, haemorrhage and necrosis

Sudden death
Weak
Dyspnoea
Neuro Sx

26

What is conjunctivitis in birds associated with

Psittacosis or mycoplasmosis
Excess UV exposure
Irritants
Resp Disease

27

What is acute blindness in budgies related to

Pituitary neoplasia

28

What is the cause of hypovitaminosis A in birds

Seed diet without supplementation

29

What can be the causes of feather destructive behaviour in birds

Medical causes - sexual frustration
Environmental causes - boredom
Psychogenic causes

30

What is the main DDX for feather destructive behaviour in birds

Psittacine beak and feather disease

31

In which birds is pododermatitis (bumblefoot) most common

Raptors

32

What is the cause of pododermatitis (bumblefoot) in birds

Husbandry related - obesity, inactivity, hypovitaminosis A, inappropriate perch

33

What is wing tip oedema and when does it occur in birds

Dry gangrene syndrome

During winter and is triggered by period of cold / freezing weather

34

How do birds with wing tip oedema present

Dropped and tip is swollen / cold with pitting oedema

35

How can the preen gland become diseased in birds

Impacted with secretions
Infected
Neoplastic change in ducts or glands

36

How does preen gland disease present in birds

Mass or area of clumped feathers

37

What is scissor beak in birds?

Abnormal beak occlusion congenital or secondary to trauma or disease

Often see in young birds where they have been fed from one side only

38

What are the main sources of heavy metal toxicity in birds

Zinc = new cage disease, absorbed into gut, damages pancreas

Lead = cage toys, environmental, absorbed in gut and retained in soft tissues

39

What are the main Sx of heavy metal toxicity in birds

Depression
Weakness
V+ or D+
PUPD
Anorexia
Seizures
Haemoglobinuria with lead poisoning

40

What is psittacosis in birds

Caused by chlamydia psittaci
Resp Sx and D+
Zoonotic

41

What is the Tx for psittacosis in birds

Doxycycline

42

What are the four viral diseases of pet birds that are notifiable

West Nile virus
Avian influenza
Newcastle disease
Pigeon paramyxovirus

43

What virus causes Psittacine beak and feather disease

Corcovirus

44

What Sx does clinical psittacine beak and feather disease cause

Lack of powder / feather dander
Abnormal feather formation
Feathers easily epilated and grow back slowly
Secondary infections

45

What is proventricular dilation Disease in birds

Progressive fatal disease affecting the autonomic nervous system of the gut caused by avian bornavoris = macaw wasting Disease

46

How might chicks with polyoma Virus infection present

Crop stasis
Ecchymotic SC haemorrhage
Coelomic distention due to hepato and splenomegaly
Abnormal feather production
Pericardial effusion
Sudden death