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Flashcards in Rabbits Deck (72)
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1

What is an important GIT syndrome in rabbits

Gut stasis

2

What is the pathogenesis of gut stasis in rabbits

Related to other diseases - a symptom not a Dx

3

What are some Sx of gut stasis in rabbits

Anorexia, pain, slow gut motility, reduced faecal production, depression, lethargic, lack of gut sounds or excessively loud borborygmi, impactions felt on palpation

4

What are the two most important initial Tx for gut stasis in rabbits

Analgesia
Fluid support - interstitial fluid flows into the gut causing dehydration

5

Why are rabbits with gut stasis not suitable candidates for a GA

Electrolytes are not secreted / reabsorbed predictably = electrolyte derangement

6

How can gut stasis be Dx on rads?

Dilated loops of guts with fluid and gas

7

Which blood test is linked to GI obstruction in rabbits?

Blood glucose

8

What blood glucose level is linked to GI obstruction and gut stasis in rabbits?

Levels > 18mmol/l

9

What are the DDX for gut stasis in rabbits (9)

GI obstruction
Dysbiosis
Failure to ear caecotrophs
D+
Mucoid enteropathy
Bloat
Caecal impaction
Parasites
Dysautonomia

10

How do the Sx of GI obstruction differ with location in rabbits

Higher the obstruction the more acute and severe the Sx

11

Which class of drugs is contra-indicated in rabbit GI obstruction

Pro kinetics

12

Define dysbiosis

A challenge to or alteration of the gut bacteria

13

What 4 things is dysbiosis related to in rabbits

AntiB use
Body temp
Changes in gut motility
Drastic alterations in diet

14

What are the Sx of dysbiosis in rabbits

Change in faecal consistency
Altered appetite

15

Which 5 AntiB should not be used in rabbits

PLACE AntiB

Penicillins
Lincomycin
Aminoglycosides
Clindomycin
Erythromycin

16

What is failure to eat caecotrophs often misdiagnosed as in rabbits

Diarrhoea

17

How can Diarrhoea and failure to eat caecotrophs be differentiated in rabbits

Rabbits not eating caecotrophs will still produce hard faecal pellets

18

What are the three main causes of a rabbit failing to eat caecotrophs

A change in taste of caecotrophs - diet change, meds, infection

A change in consistency of caecotrophs - more runny than usual due to infection or inflam

An inability to eat them - pain e.g. dental disease, OA, vestibular disease causing poor balance

19

What results from D+ in rabbits

Gut motility disordered - atonic guts
Rapid fluid loss
Electrolyte imbalance

20

What are the main causes of D+ in rabbits

Coccidiosis
Tyzzers disease - clostridium pilliformis
Salmonella
Campylobacter

21

What is mucoid enteropathy in rabbits

D+ complex seen in juvenile rabbits related to low fibre diets

22

What are the main Sx of mucoid enteropathy in rabbits

Mucoid bloody D+

23

How does bloat appear in rabbits

Gut loops filled with gas

24

What is the pathogenesis of bloat in rabbits

Bacteria produce gas in response to a change in microbiome or diet

Gastric dilation = functional obstruction of pyloric outflow

25

What is caecal impaction in rabbits linked to

Abnormal function of fusus coli

26

What are the Sx of caecal impaction in rabbits

No caecotrophs produced = loss of BCS
Painful large doughy caecum on palpation

27

Why is coccidiosis mostly seen in rabbits prior to weaning?

Adults immune post weaning

28

What is coccidiosis associated with in rabbits

Stress
Overstocking
Poor hygiene

29

What type of disease can coccidiosis cause and what are the agents responsible

6x enteric eimeria spp and 1x hepatic eimeria spp

Enteric = D+, stunted growth, weight loss, lethargy, death

Hepatic = subclinical, weight loss, stunted growth, ascites, jaundice, hepatomegaly

30

Other than coccidiosis, what three other gut parasites affect rabbits

Passalurus ambiguus - pinworm

Obeliscoides cuniculi - stomach worm

Trichostrongykus retortaeformis - intestinal worm

31

Why is routine worming not indicated in pet rabbits?

Pinworm = commensal
Stomach worm = not reported in pet rabbits
Intestinal worm = not seen in UK, seen in EU and Oz

32

What is dysautonomia

Dysfunction of the ANS

33

What is another name for dysautonomia in rabbits

Megacolon

34

What is the main risk factor for dysautonomia in rabbits

Low fibre diet

35

What are the main Sx of dysautonomia in rabbits

Palpable large bowel impaction
Pain
Reduced GI function
Swallowing difficulties
Urinary incontinence

36

What is the cause of dysautonomia in rabbits

Link to grass sickness in horses

Clostridium botulinum toxins

37

What is the difference between pre and pro biotic

Pre = complex molecules that promote the growth of good bacteria

Pro = forms of good bacteria given orally

38

What a the Sx of dental disease in rabbits

Anorexia
Drooling
Tooth grinding
Wet below chin / paws - hypersalivation
Change in dietary preferences

39

What causes abscesses in rabbits

Secondary to trauma or bite wounds
Post-surgery
Related to dental disease

40

What is the best Tx for abscesses in rabbits

Radical excision including removal of affected teeth
Plus long course of AntiB

41

What is pododermatitis

Dermatitis, ulcers and sores to the plantar surface of the feet

42

What are the main causes of pododermatitis in rabbits

No foot pads - furred plantar surfaces
Obesity
Soiled bedding
Wire floors

43

What is the ear mite spp seen in rabbits

Psoroptes cuniculi

44

Which mite spp causes large white scales and is know as ‘walking dandruff’ in rabbits

Cheyletiella parasitovorax

45

What mite is know as the fur mite and is a commensal in rabbits

Leporocarus gibbus

46

Which flea spp can affect rabbits

Ctenocephalides fells, canis
Spilopsyllus cuniculli

47

How can flea infestation be Tx in rabbits

Imidacloprid - Licensed

Fipronol toxicity

48

Which ectoparasite Disease is most common is rabbits

Myiasis - fly strike

49

Which spp of fly causes fly strike in rabbits

Lucila sericata

50

What must occur to skin prior to fly strike

It must be damaged

51

How can fly strike be Tx and Px in rabbits

Insecticidal
Ivermectin
Rearguard = cyromazine for Px

52

What bacteria causes rabbit syphilis? How does it present? How is it Tx?

Treponema cuniculli
Sexually transmitted genital lesions with auto inoculation leading to facial lesions, lips, eyelids

Tx = penicillin via injection

53

What causes myxomatosis in rabbits and what are the forms of disease

Poxvirus

Systemic - facial and genital oedema
Cutaneous

54

How is myxomatosis transmitted

Insect vectors

55

Which two spp cause ringworm in rabbits

Trichophyton metagrophytes

Microsporum canis

56

What diseases does rabbit calici virus cause?

Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease 1 and 2

57

Contrast RHD1 and RHD2

RHD1 = high mortality in rabbits, young immune until 6wks age, reservoir is European Brown Hare

RHD2 = related virus that causes disease in rabbits and hares, lower mortality

58

What is the main resp Disease seen in rabbits

‘Snuffles’

59

What causes snuffles in rabbits

Pasteurella multocida

60

What is snuffles related to in rabbits

Stress
Husbandry

61

How is resp Disease best Dx in rabbits

Deep nasal swab

62

What can cause a head tilt in rabbits

Consequence of prior resp infection that has tracked to the middle or inner ear

Secondary to encephalitozoon cuniculi infection

Peripheral or central nervous disease

63

What is encephalitozoon caniculli and what does it cause in rabbits

Micrsporidium oarasite

Neurological or Renal disease

Related to ‘Floppy Rabbit Syndrome’ and posterior paralysis

64

Why is Renal Disease most commonly seen in older rabbits

Age = reduced GFR, reduced Renal blood flow, reduced ability to maintain acid base and fluid homeostasis

65

What is urine sludging in rabbits

A thick paste of ca in the ventral bladder that is hard to void

66

How does urine sludging occur in rabbits

Ca uptake in rabbits is via GIT and related to dietary content alone
Usually excreted suspended in the urine
Lack of mobility = Ca in urine settles out into a thick sludge on the ventral bladder wall

67

What are the main Sx seen with urine sludging in rabbits

Haematuria
Urine scalding

68

How is urine sludging Tx and Px

Increase fluid intake
Alter diet - feed vegetation wet, reduced Ca pellets, increase water-rich foods e.g. cucumber

69

What can be a complication of urine sludging in rabbits

Urolithiasis

70

What are the 6 main reproductive diseases seen in rabbits

1. Phantom pregnancy
2. Abortion
3. Uterine varices
4. Uterine adenocarcinoma
5. Mastitis
6. Mammary neoplasia

71

What disease can occur in rabbits after neutering that is similar to a disease more commonly seen in ferrets?

Adrenal Disease

72

What is the pathogenesis of adrenal disease in rabbits

Neutering = LH and FSH remain at stimulatory levels in blood without gonads to act on = receptor formation on adrenal surface = bind to adrenal gland and stimulate production of active reproductive hormones