# Research & NFB Flashcards Preview

## BCIA Exam > Research & NFB > Flashcards

Flashcards in Research & NFB Deck (84)
1
Q

In order to conduct a psychology experiment, a researcher must create at least _______ treatment conditions?

A

2

2
Q

The _________ of a correlation coefficient indexes its strength.

A

￼ Absolute value

3
Q

Why do researchers randomly assign subjects to experimental conditions?

A

To control for individual differences

4
Q

What is a negative correlation

A

A relationship between two variables in which an increase in one is associated with a decrease in another. Also called an inverse relationship.

5
Q

The term ________ refers to all people, animals, or objects that share at least one characteristic.

A

Population

6
Q

The _________ is the specific behavior we expect to change due to our experimental intervention.

A

Dependent variable

7
Q

We do not know which population or sample represents when we use…

A

Convenience sampling or quota sampling

8
Q

“Levels of the independent variable” refers to…

A

The number of treatment conditions for an independent variable

9
Q

What does a samples representativeness effect?

A

The ability to generalize experimental findings; external validity

10
Q

What is a cluster sample?

A

Cluster sampling is a form of probability sampling in which a researcher, samples entire clusters, or naturally occurring groups, that exist within the population.

11
Q

Statisticians prefer probability samples over nonprobability samples because they….

A

Often better represent the population of interest

12
Q

What type of study is used to determine the degree to which two or more treats, behaviors, or events are related

A

Correlational study

13
Q

When randomly selecting every 10th name on a list, this constitutes a _______ or subset of the population.

A

Sample

14
Q

The Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient ranges between…

A

-1 and +1

15
Q

And a true experiment, an experimenter _________ the independent variable and ___________, the dependent variable

A

Manipulates; measures

16
Q

What is meant by the average squared deviation of scores from the mean?

A

Variance

17
Q

What is a positive correlation

A

A relationship between two measures when one increases in the value is associated with an increase of value of the other; also called a direct relationship

18
Q

An experimenter manipulates the ___________ in an experiment to assess it affect on behavior

A

Independent variable

19
Q

What correlations score permit the most accurate prediction

A

Closest to 1.0

20
Q

What does reliability refer to in regards to experimental procedures?

A

The consistency of the experimental procedure

21
Q

What is concurrent validity?

A

Concurrent validity refers to the degree to which scores on the measuring instrument correlate with another known standard for measuring the variable being studied. For example, comparing scores on one instrument with another instrument.

22
Q

What is predictive validity?

A

Predictive validity refers to the degree to which a measuring instrument provides information allowing prediction of actual behavior or performance

23
Q

What is content validity?

A

Content validity refers to the degree to which the contents of a measure reflects the Contant of what is being measured. For example, a test covers the specific chapters taught.

24
Q

When an extraneous variable changes value across conditions, along with the independent variable, the experiment __________

A

Is confounded. Confounded refers to an error that occurs when the value of an extraneous variable changes systematically along with the independent variable in an experiment.

25
Q

What kind of reliability can be measured when several psychologist score at subjects, essays for aggressiveness?

A

Interrater reliability

26
Q

Psychologist can evaluate the _________ when they administer the MMPI twice to the same subject two weeks apart.

A

Text - retest reliability

27
Q

____________ physical aspects of the testing situation that the experimenter directly controls

A

Environmental variables

28
Q

What is a Testing threat?

A

A testing threat is a threat to internal validity, produced by a previous administration of the same test or other measure

29
Q

And operational definition is valid when…..

A

It measures what we intended it to measure; valid

30
Q

What is interim reliability?

A

Interim, reliability refers to the degree to which different items measuring the same variable, attain, consistent results. Researchers assess interim reliability by evaluating the internal consistency of an entire set of items or by measuring a test split – half reliability.

31
Q

If researcher presents with 3 different levels of independent variable, there must be _______ treatment conditions.

A

3

32
Q

The __________ is the average deviation of scores about the mean.

A

Standard deviation; it calculates effect size

33
Q

What is construct validity?

A

Construct validity assesses whether we have succeeded in creating a measuring device that assesses only the hypothetical entity we want to test.

34
Q

When we are certain that the changes in behavior that we observe across different treatment conditions of our experiment were actually caused by the independent variable, our experiment is…..

A

internally valid

35
Q

The dependent variable is the variable that is…

A

Measured

36
Q

What is a Instrumentation threat?

A

A threat to internal validity produced by changes in the measuring instrument itself

37
Q

What is a history threat?

A

A history threat refers to a threat to internal validity, in which an outside event or occurrence might have produced effects on the dependent variable. ￼

38
Q

The independent variable is variable that the experimenter….

A

Manipulates

39
Q

Experimenters generally want subjects to be as naïve as possible, concerning the experimental hypothesis to reduce confounding by….

A

Demand characteristics

40
Q

What is balancing in research?

A

Balancing is a technique used to control the impact of extraneous variables by distributing there a fix equally across treatment conditions. For example, running have to subjects in each condition and having another experimenter running the other half.

41
Q

What is experimenter bias?

A

When the experimenter provides implicit or explicit cues to subjects to respond in a particular way

42
Q

What is an elimination technique?

A

Controls, extraneous variables by removing them from the experiment. For example, testing subjects in a soundproof room to prevent noise from distracting them.

43
Q

What is constancy of conditions?

A

It’s a control procedure used to avoid confounding; keeping all aspects of the treatment conditions, identical, except for the independent variable that is being manipulated.

44
Q

What is a Selection threat?

A

When the experimenter fails to randomly assign subjects to different experimental conditions

45
Q

What does statistical regression mean?

A

Statistical regression threat is a threat to internal validity that can occur when subjects are assigned to conditions on the basis of extreme scores on a test, upon retest, the scores of extreme scores tend to regress towards the mean, even without any treatment.

46
Q

Describe the Rosenthal effect

A

The Rosenthal affect is a phenomenon of experimenters treating subject differently, depending on what they expect from the subjects, also called the Pygmalion affect.

47
Q

A

Neither of the subjects, nor the experimenter know which treatment the subjects are receiving

48
Q

Placebo effects in drug trials are due to

A

Demand characteristics

49
Q

What is face validity?

A

The degree to which a manipulation or measurement technique is self evident

50
Q

What is a single blind experiment?

A

Subjects do not know which treatment they are receiving

51
Q

We use a control group in an experiment to…

A

Measure the dependent variable without the experimental manipulation

52
Q

What type of design is used with one or very few subjects?

A

A small N design

53
Q

What are considered a social variable?

A

Demand characteristics and experimental bias

54
Q

What does between subjects mean in a between subjects experiment?

A

Experimenters compare the performance of different groups on the dependent variable

55
Q

Experimental designs that study two or more independent variables at the same time are called?

A

Factorial designs

56
Q

If we do not randomly assign subject to treatment conditions,

A

Confounding may occur

57
Q

Experimenters generally want subjects to be naïve as possible, concerning experimental hypothesis to reduce confounding by

A

Demand characteristics

58
Q

Describe a within subjects design

A

It within subjects design is one in which the same subjects take part in each condition of the experiment.

59
Q

What are physical variables?

A

Aspects of the testing condition that need to be controlled

60
Q

In clinical psychopathology research, small N designs, help solve the ethical dilemma of

A

Untreated, control groups

61
Q

A principal difference between a factorial experiment and a two group experiment. Is that a factorial design

A

Has more than one independent variable

62
Q

What technique controls demand characteristics involved in deception?

A

Cover story

63
Q

By randomly assigning subjects to treatment conditions, many extraneous variables are automatically _________ across conditions

A

Balanced

64
Q

Increasing the sample size

A

Increases statistical power

65
Q

When the independent variable creates larger group differences on the dependent variable, then we would see if we randomly assign subject to groups, and only measured them, this demonstrates….

A

Statistical significance

66
Q

The altitude of mount Whitney is 4418 m while the altitude of death Valley is 86 m below sea level. The difference in their altitudes illustrates the concept of.

A

Variability

67
Q

Mini statistical test assume the population you have sampled is normally distributed. This means that if you could measure everyone in the population on the dependent variable,

A

The distribution of scores would be symmetrical and bell shaped

68
Q

Experimenter has the greatest confidence when using a __________ to represent the larger population

A

￼ Random sample

69
Q

Mini researchers prefer small N designs because they

A

Obtain a continuous record of the subject behavior overtime

70
Q

Statistical significance means that

A

Normal variability in the dependent variable cannot account for our results.

71
Q

What does rejecting the null hypothesis mean?

A

There is a definite consequence, all relationship between the two phenomena

72
Q

Some researchers might disagree with using small N designs because

A

Small N designs made achieve lower external validity than well designed large N designs

73
Q

Researchers me use the APA format only if

A

The treatment conditions are reversible

74
Q

Researchers use the ABA design to

A

Demonstrate that a Behavior returns to its baseline level when the experimental intervention is removed

75
Q

The _________ hypothesis states that the performance of a treatment group is so similar that the scores must have been sampled from the same population

A

The null hypothesis

76
Q

And an ABA design, the second A refers to

A

77
Q

The __________ in a small and design measures behavior as it normally occurs without manipulation of the independent variable.

A

Baseline

78
Q

The results of an experiment are statistically significant when

A

The difference between group scores exceeds normal Variability

79
Q

A crucial step to rule out, possible confounding, when using a small N design is

A

Removal of the independent variable and return of behavior to baseline

80
Q

Which criterion does an experimenter use to decide which to accept or reject the null hypothesis

A

Significance level

81
Q

The B in an ABA design refers to

A

The experimental condition

82
Q

Another name for an ABA design is

A

Reversal design

83
Q

When you select an alpha level of p < .05, this means that if you calculated 100 correlations, fewer than ________, would be significant due to chance.

A

5

84
Q

When we set up statistical test, we assume that

A

The independent variable had no effect.