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Flashcards in Respiration Deck (113):
2

The respiratory system consists of what 6 parts of the body?

1. Nasal cavity
2. Pharynx
3. Trachea
4. Bronchi
5. Bronchioles
6. Alveoli

3

The respiratory system permits gaseous exchange between what and what?

Gaseous exchange between the external environment and the blood

4

There are 5 functions of the respiratory system, what are they?

1. Gaseous exchange
2. Sound production
3. Abdominal compression
4. Route for water/heat loss from body.
5. Coughing and sneezing

5

Why is it important that one of the main respiratory functions is a route for water and heat loss from the body?

Moistening of inspired air is ESSENTIAL to prevent the alveolar linings form drying out.

Oxygen and carbon dioxide CANNOT diffuse through dry membranes.

6

What are the 3 types of respiration the body performs?

1. External respiration
2. Internal respiration
3. Cellular respiration

7

What is 'External Respiration'?

Process by which gases are exchanged between the air in the alveoli and blood within the pulmonary capillaries via diffusion.

8

What is 'Internal Respiration'?

Process by which gases are exchanged between the blood and the cells.

9

What is 'Cellular Respiration'?

Process by which cells use O2 for metabolism and give off CO2 as waste product.

O2 -> Mitochondria
CO2 From Mitochondria -> Blood Vessel (Waste)

10

What is the process from start to finish of the bronchial tree?

Trachea -> R/L Primary Bronchi -> Secondary Bronchi -> Tertiary Bronchi -> Bronchioles -> Alveolar ducts -> Alveolar sacs (Many Small Pulmonary Alveoli)

11

How does gas exchange occur with the blood of the circulatory system?

Through thin-walled, moistened pulmonary alveoli

12

What is the number of 'pulmonary alveioli' in the lungs and what is the approximate surface area?

300 million

6 times the surface area of the body

13

The surfactant in the alveoli is secreted by what kind of cells?

Type II alveolar cells

14

Why is a surfactant needed in the alveoli?

Lowers the surface tension inside alveolus

15

How are foreign materials removed from the lungs? (What kind of cells do this)

Alveolar macrophages

16

What are the mechanics of breathing? What causes air to move in and out of the lungs?

Pressure gradient changes

17

What happens during 'INSPIRATION' of the respiratory system? (i.e., diagphram/intercostal muscles/thoracic volume)

Diaphragm CONTRACTS and descends.

External Intercostal Muscles ELEVATE

(*Hint - INSPIRATION comes from EXTERNAL sources.)

Thoracic Volume INCREASES

18

What happens during 'EXPIRATION' of the respiratory system? (i.e., diagphram/intercostal muscles/thoracic volume)

Diaphragm RELAXES

Internal Intercostal Muscles CONTRACT

Thoracic Volume DECREASES

19

What is 'hypoxia'?

A deprivation of oxygen in tissues and organs.

20

What is 'eupnea'?

Normal breathing

21

What is 'dyspnea'?

Difficult or labored breathing

22

What is 'apnea'?

Temporary cessation of respiration that may follow hyperventilation.

23

What is 'Cheyne-stokes'?

Periods of DYSPNEA followed by periods of APNEA

DEATH usually occurs close after this starts to occur

24

What is the 'average respiration rate'?

12-15 times per minute

25

What is the 'average Oxygen Consumption' rate?

250 ml O2 per minute at rest

26

What are the 2 factors that affect airway resistance?

Bronchoconstriction
Bronchodilation

27

What are some of the characteristics of 'bronchoconstriction'?

DECREASED radius
INCREASED resistance to flow

Allergy induced spasm of airways (histamine induced)

Parasympathetic stimulation may attribute in relaxed situations where demand for airflow is low.

Bronchiolar smooth muscle contraction = INCREASED airway resistance

28

What are some of the characterisics of 'bronchodilation'?

INCREASED radius
DECREASED resistance to airflow

Sympathetic stimulation may attribute. Epi/Norepi hormonal control. Occurs when increased demands for oxygen uptake is required for the body.

29

What are the symptoms of 'ASTHMA' and what is it usually caused by?

Recurrent attacks of 'DYSPNEA' (difficulty breathing).

Usually via allergic response to plants, animals, food products.

Results in CONTRACTION of the bronchial muscles.

30

What are the symptoms of 'PNEUMONIA'?

Acute infection and inflammation of the lungs with exudation (accumulation of fluid)

31

What are the symptoms of 'CHRONIC BRONCHITIS' and what is it usually caused by?

Long term inflammation of lower respiratory airways.

Triggered by frequent exposure to irritating cigarette smoke, polluted air or allergens.

32

What are the symptoms of 'EMPHYSEMA' and what is it usually caused by?

Collapse of smaller airways and breakdown of alveolar walls.

Caused by excessive release of destruction enzymes (i.e., TRYPSIN) from alveolar macrophages as a defense mechanism.

This is a response to chronic exposure of cigarette smoke or other irritants.

33

There are 8 values usually listed for lung volumes and capacities. What are they and their abbreviations?

1. Tidal Volume (TV)
2. Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)
3. Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)
4. Residual Volume (RV)
5. Minute Respiratory Volume (MRV)
6. Alveolar Ventilation Volume (AVV)
7. Total Lung Capacity (TLC)
8. Vital Capacity (VC)

34

What is the definition of 'TIDAL VOLUME'?

Volume of air moved into/out of lungs during NORMAL breathing (400-500 ml)

35

What is the definition of 'INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME'?

Maximum volume beyond the tidal volume that can be inspired in one deep breath (3000 ml)

36

What is the definition of 'EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME'?

Maximum volume beyond the tidal volume that can be forcefully exhaled following normal expiration (1100 ml)

37

What is the definition of 'RESIDUAL VOLUME'?

Air that remains in the lungs following forceful expiration (1200 ml)

38

What is the definition of 'MINUTE RESPIRATORY VOLUME'?

The volume of air moved in normal ventilation in one minute

(MRV = (tidal volume) x (respiratory rate)

**Normal Value = 6000 ml/min

39

What is the definition of 'ALVEOLAR VENTILATION VOLUME'?

Volume of air that ACTUALLY ventilates the alveoli.

AVV = {(tidal volume) - (dead air)} x respiratory rate

**Normal Value = 4200 ml/min

40

What is 'dead air'?

Portion of the inspired air that does NOT take part in gas exchange. This air fills passageways to ventilate the alveoli.

This is part of the Alveolar Ventilation Volume (AVV)

41

What percentage of the tidal volume is 'dead air'?

30%

42

What is the definition of 'TOTAL LUNG CAPACITY'?

The sum of the FOUR lung volumes

TLV = TV + ERV + IRV + RV

**Normal Value = ~5700 ml

43

What is the definition of 'VITAL CAPACITY'?

Represents the total amount of air that can be exchanged by the lungs.

**Normal Value = ~4600 ml

44

What is a 'spirogram'?

The recording of the pulmonary volumes and capacities.

45

There are 6 layers of the respiratory membrane (alveolar capillary membrane)?

1. Surfactant
2. Thin Layer of Fluid - WATER
3. Alveolar Epithelium
4. Interstitial Space
5. Capillary Basement Membrane
6. Capillary Endothelium

46

Sometimes newborn babies have collapsed alveolar sacs. Why does this occur?

They aren't secreting surfactant

47

There are 4 factors that affect gaseous diffusion across the respiratory membrane. What are they?

1. Thickness of respiratory membrane
2. Surface area of the membrane
3. Diffusion coefficient of each gas
4. Pressure difference across membrane

48

How much more soluble is CO2 than water?

20x

49

What is the normal pressure difference for O2 in the alveolus?

O2 = 104

50

What is the normal pressure of CO2 across the membrane in the alveolus?

CO2=40

51

What is the normal pressure DIFFERENCE of O2 when it crosses the membrane and where does it move?

O2 = 40 -> 104 (CAPILLARY)

52

What is the normal pressure DIFFERENCE of CO2 when it crosses the membrane and where does it move?

CO2 = 45 -> 40 (ALVEOLUS)

53

There are 4 elements involved in the composition of air. What are the elements and what are their normal values in the atmosphere?

N2 - 78.6%
O2 - 20.8%
CO2 - 0.04%
H2O - 0.5%

54

What are the values (percentages) of the different elements of air that are located in the alveolus?

N2 - 74.9%
O2 - 13.6%
CO2 - 5.3%
H2O - 6.2%

55

Which of the two molecules, oxygen or carbon dioxide IS soluble in water?

CARBON DIOXIDE

56

Because 'oxygen' is NOT very soluble in water, what percentage of O2 is dissolved in the BLOOD PLASMA?

1-3%

57

What percentage of 'oxygen' is carried by the hemoglobin molecules in the red blood cells?

97-99%

58

Where does hemoglobin pick up oxygen and where does it release it?

PICK UP = Lungs

RELEASE = Cells

59

The most important determination factor of whether or not oxygen is BOUND or RELEASED is caused by what?

Concentration (partial pressure) of oxygen

60

If oxygen makes up about 21% of atmospheric air, it is responsible for 21% of the atmospheric pressure.

This O2 concentration is equal to what amount of mm Hg?

21% x 760 mm Hg = 160 mm Hg

61

The PO2 in the lungs is ___ mm Hg, and is _______ than the normal average O2 atmospheric pressure which is ___ mm Hg

1. 104 mm Hg
2. LOWER
3. 160 mm Hg = O2 Pressure

62

The PCO2 in the alveolus is ___ mm Hg, and is _______ than the normal average CO2 atmospheric pressure which is ___ mm Hg

1. 40 mm Hg
2. HIGHER
3. 0.304 mm Hg (*Don't need to know)

63

1 gram of Hemoglobin (Hb) carries about how many ml of oxygen?

1.34 ml Oxygen (O2)

64

15 gm of Hb per 100 ml of blood - 1 gm of Hb carried about 1.34 ml of Oxygen

15 gm / 100 ml of blood x 1.34 ml O2 = 20 ml O2 / 100 ml BLOOD

65

Normally ARTERIAL BLOOD is about __% saturated with O2 and VENOUS BLOOD is about __% saturated with O2.

1. Arterial Blood = 97%
2. Venous Blood = 75%

66

During exercise ____ oxygen is removed from the blood.

*(More/Less)

MORE

67

During exercise, ARTERIAL BLOOD is about __% saturated with O2 and VENOUS BLOOD is about __% saturated with O2.

1. Arterial Blood = 97%
2. Venous Blood = 25%

68

What is the most important factor in determining the % Hb saturation?

PO2 of the blood

69

True or False:

Hb saturation curve is NOT linear in the relationship with blood PO2.

TRUE

Hb saturation is NOT linear. It is S-shaped

70

Under normal conditions only about __% of the O2 is released to the cells in the tissue.

25%

71

At a PO2 in the tissues the 'Oxygen-Hemaglobin Saturation' curve is still around __%?

75%

72

There are 4 factors that affect the 'Oxygen-Hemaglobin Saturation' curve. What are they?

1. pH
2. PCO2
3. Temperature
4. 2,3-Biphosphoglycerate (BPG)
*Present in RBCs

73

What is the 'Bohr Effect'?

The factors that can cause the 'Oxygen-Hemaglobin Saturation Curve' to shift to the RIGHT

74

What is the % of Hb saturation when the PO2 is at 40 mm Hg?

75% Saturated

75

What is the % of Hb saturation when the PO2 is at 100 mm Hg?

97.5% Saturated

76

What happens to the 'Oxygen-Hemaglobin Saturation Curve' when there is INCREASED PCO2?

Shifts to the RIGHT

77

What happens to the 'Oxygen-Hemaglobin Saturation Curve' when there is INCREASED Body Temperature?

Shifts to the RIGHT

78

What happens to the 'Oxygen-Hemaglobin Saturation Curve' when there is DECREASED pH (increased acidity/decreased basicity)?

Shifts to the RIGHT

79

What happens to the 'Oxygen-Hemaglobin Saturation Curve' when there is DECREASED PCO2?

Shifts to the LEFT

80

What happens to the 'Oxygen-Hemaglobin Saturation Curve' when there is DECREASED Body Temperature?

Shifts to the LEFT

81

What happens to the 'Oxygen-Hemaglobin Saturation Curve' when there is INCREASED pH (decreased acidity/increased basicity)?

Shifts to the LEFT

82

What happens to the 'Oxygen-Hemaglobin Saturation Curve' when there is INCREASED '2,3-biphosphoglycerate' (BPG)?

Shifts to the RIGHT

83

When PCO2, Acidity (H+), Body Temperature and/or 2,3-biphosphoglycerate (BPG) INCREASE. What is this called? What happens to the 'Oxygen-Hemaglobin Saturation Curve?

Called the 'Bohr Effect'

The saturation curve shifts to the RIGHT

84

During exercise, hemoglobin unloads more oxygen and the partial pressure of O2 drops. Which way will the 'Oxygen-Hemaglobin Saturation Curve' shift?

RIGHT

(Bohr Effect)

85

Why is it usually not a problem even under abnormal conditions for CO2 to be transported in the blood as a cell uses oxygen?

More CO2 can be carried than O2.

86

There are 3 major ways that CO2 can be transported. What are they and what percentage of the time are they utilized by the body?

1. Dissolved in blood plasma (7-8%)
2. Carried by Hb (23-25%)
3. As bicarbonate ion (65-70%)

87

Which mechanism of transporting CO2 in the body is the MOST important one and why?

As a bicarbonate ion (65-70% of the time)

Can carry more CO2 than the other mechanisms.

88

What is the molecule called when CO2 binds to Hb?

Carbaminohemoglobin

89

Hb can also be considered a buffer for what ion?

H+

90

What is the 'Chloride Shift' effect? What CO2 transport mechanism is it connected with?

Bicarbonate Ion Mechanism

As bicarbonate ions diffuse OUT of the RBC's into the PLASMA and transported to the LUNGS, Cl- diffuses IN from the PLASMA.

This counter-balances the positive charge that would have been left inside the RBC.

91

There are 2 CONTROLS of respiration. What are they?

1. Neural Control
2. Chemical Control

92

What is the most important part of the body that is utilized in regulating RESPIRATION?

MEDULLA

93

What are the characteristics of the 'Neural Control' center in the respiratory control?

Controlled by 'Medullary Respiratory Center' in brain stem

Consists of dorsal/ventral respiratory groups in medulla

Two other centers in the pons that help regulate (apneustic/pneumotaxic).

94

What are the other two centers that are located in the pons that help regulated respiration in the 'Neural Control' respiratory system?

Apneustic Center

Pneumotaxic Center

95

These type of NEURONS regulate the main part of inspiration and expiration and are located in the medulla.

DORSAL NEURONS

96

What are the characteristics of the 'Dorsal Respiratory Group'?

MAJOR rhythm regulator

Consists mainly of inspiratory neurons. Descending fibers stimulate inspiratory muscles.

97

What are the characteristics of the 'Ventral Respiratory Group'?

Active when ventilation demands increase.

Contains BOTH inspiratory/expiratory neurons.

Normally INACTIVE during quiet breathing.

98

What does the 'pneumotaxic' center do?

Sends impulses to DORSAL neurons to 'SWITCH OFF' inspiratory neurons.

Limit duration of inspiration.

99

What does the 'apneustic' center do?

Prevents inspiratory neurons from being 'SWITCHED OFF'

Provides extra BOOST to inspiratory drive.

100

What is the 'Herring-Breuer' reflex, and when does it occur?

Helps prevent OVERINFLATION of the lungs

Stretch receptors in lungs are activated by stretching of lungs at LARGE tidal volumes.

101

There are two types of chemoreceptors involved in the 'Chemical Control' system in respiratory control. What are they and where are they located?

1. Peripheral Chemorecepters - Located in the CAROTID and AORTIC bodies.

2. Central Chemoreceptors - Located in the MEDULLA.

102

Which is the most important molecule in controlling respiration?

CO2

103

In the 'Chemical Control' system in respiratory control, the PERIPHERAL CHEMORECEPTORS are controlled by the concentrations of 2 things. What are the 2 things?

1. DECREASED PO2
2. INCREASED H+ CONCENTRATION

104

In the 'Chemical Control' system in respiratory control, the CENTRAL CHEMORECEPTORS are controlled by the concentrations of 1 thing. What is that 1 thing?

1. INCREASED PCO2

105

A temporary absence of respiration is known as?

Apnea

106

Which two muscles are involved in inspiration?

1. DIAPHRAGM
2. EXTERNAL INTERCOSTALS

107

What is the average oxygen consumption of a person at rest?

250 ml/min

108

What is residual volume?

The air that remains in the lungs following a forceful expiration

109

What is vital capacity?

The TOTAL amount of air that can be exchanged by the lungs

110

What % of the atmosphere is O2?

20.80%

111

O2 pressure in the alveolus is?

104 mm Hg

112

Most CO2 is transported via?

BICARBONATE ION

113

Overinflation of the lungs is prevented by what?

HERRING-BREUER REFLEX

114

The lack of surfactant in newborn babies is referred to as?

RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME