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Flashcards in Reproduction 2 Deck (123):
2

When 'ESTROGEN' is present, what happens to the female germ cell 'OOCYTE'?

BEGINS TO MATURE

3

What hormone must be present in order for a 'FEMALE' germ cell 'OOCYTE' to 'MATURE'?

ESTROGEN

4

A 'FOLLICLE' that is exposed to 'ESTROGEN' goes through a series of complex steps to mature. There are 4 basic steps, what are they?

1. PRIMARY FOLLICLE
2. SECONDARY FOLLICLE
3. TERTIARY FOLLICLE
4. EGG RELEASED INTO OVIDUCT

5

What is the 'LARGE MATURE FOLLICLE' that develops during the cycle called?

GRAFFIAN FOLLICLE

6

There are 2 main 'HORMONES' thare are released from the 'OVARIES'. What are they?

1. ESTROGENS
2. PROGESTERONE

7

'ESTROGENS' encompass several different hormones. What are the 3 different hormones?

1. ESTRADIOL
2. ESTRIOL
3. ESTRONE

8

What is the 'MAIN' 'ESTROGEN' that is secreted from the 'OVARIES'?

ESTRADIOL

9

'ESTROGEN' is produced in 'FEMALES' from 3 different places. What are the 3 places?

1. FOLLICLE
2. CORPUS LUTEUM
3. PLACENTA

10

What are the effects of 'ESTROGEN' in the 'FEMALE' system development?

STIMULATES DEVELOPMENT OF 'SECONDARY SEX STRUCTURES'

11

'ESTROGEN' also has an effect on one of the 'UTERINE WALLS'. Which 'UTERINE WALL' does it affect and what happens?

MYOMETRIUM

STIMULATES MYOMETRIAL CONTRACTIONS

(*MNEMONIC - ME)

12

'ESTROGEN' has the ability to 'INHIBIT' what other hormone?

FSH (FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE)

13

'PROGESTERONE' is produced in 'FEMALES' from 2 different places. What are the 2 places?

1. CORPUS LUTEUM
2. PLACENTA

14

'PROGESTERONE' also has an effect on one of the 'UTERINE WALLS'. Which 'UTERINE WALL' does it affect and what happens?

MYOMETRIUM

'INHIBITS' MYOMETRIUM CONTRACTIONS

(*MNEMONIC - PRO-INHIBITION)

15

What does 'PROGESTERONE' inhibit?

MYOMETRIUM

'INHIBITS' MYOMETRIUM CONTRACTIONS

(*MNEMONIC - PRO-INHIBITION)

16

What are the effects of 'ESTROGEN' in the 'FEMALE' system development?

STIMULATES DEVELOPMENT OF 'SECONDARY SEX STRUCTURES'

17

The 'CESSATION' of 'menses' or 'MENARCHE' (mensturation) is also called what two things?

1. MENOPAUSE
2. CLIMACTERIC

18

From 'PUBERTY' to 'MENOPAUSE' in 'FEMALES'. There are 8 things than occur, what are they?

1. BREAST CHANGE
2. MENSTRUATION CHANGE
3. RHYTHMIC OVARY CHANGES
4. MYOMETRIUM CHANGES
5. VAGINAL CHANGE
6. HORMONE SECRETION CHANGES
7. BODY TEMPERATURE CHANGES
8. MOOD CHANGES

19

What would the following by sings of:

1. BREAST CHANGE
2. MENSTRUATION CHANGE
3. RHYTHMIC OVARY CHANGES
4. MYOMETRIUM CHANGES
5. VAGINAL CHANGE
6. HORMONE SECRETION CHANGES
7. BODY TEMPERATURE CHANGES
8. MOOD CHANGES

Changes from 'PUBERTY' to 'MENOPAUSE' in 'FEMALES'

20

What is the 'AVERAGE HUMAN MENSTRUAL CYCLE' length?

29.5 DAYS

21

What things can change the 'REGULARITY' of a 'WOMAN'S MENSTRUAL CYCLE'? (*There are 4 of them)

1. SOCIAL INTERACTIONS
2. DAY LENGTH
3. ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES
4. SEXUAL BEHAVIOR

22

TRUE or FALSE:

Younger women tend to have SHORTER cycles than do older women

FALSE

Younger Women = LONGER CYCLES

Older Women = SHORTER CYCLES

23

What would eventually happen to a group of girls on different 'MENSTRUATION' cycles if they were put together in the same living environment?

EVENTUALLY THEY WOULD MENSTRUATE AT ABOUT THE SAME TIME

24

The 'OVARIAN CYCLE' is spread over 29.5 days. During these time, there are 5 main events. What are the 5 days that these events take place?

1. DAY 1
2. DAY 7
3. DAY 14
4. DAY 23
5. DAY 27

(7-14-23-27)

25

If 'ESTROGEN/PROGESTERONE' levels are 'HIGH' what is 'INHIBITED'?

FSH (FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE)

26

What happens on 'DAY 1' of the 'OVARIAN CYCLE'?

What hormones are present and in what levels?

MENSTURATION STARTS

ESTROGEN/PROGESTERONE = LOW
FSH = HIGH

27

On 'DAY 1' of the 'OVARIAN CYCLE', 'FSH' levels are high. What does this do?

STIMULATES THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE FOLLICLE (EGG INSIDE FOLLICLE)

28

How many 'FOLLICLES' are 'STIMULATED' during 'MENSTURATION'?

6-7 IN EACH OVARY

29

What happens on 'DAY 2' of the 'OVARIAN CYCLE'?

What hormones are present and in what levels?

ONE FOLLICLE CONTINUES, OTHERS DEGENERATE

ESTROGEN 'INCREASES' AS FOLLICLE GROWS INTO 'GRAFFIAN FOLLICLE'

30

What happens on 'DAY 14' of the 'OVARIAN CYCLE'?

What hormones are present and in what levels?

OVULATION

LH SURGE = 16 HOURS BEFORE OVULATION

LH = HIGH

Expulsion of egg from 'MATURE FOLLICLE'

31

TRUE or FALSE

'OVARIES' usually alternate expulsion of the 'EGG/FOLLICLE'.

TRUE

'OVARIES' DO ALTERNATE

32

What will happen if there is NO 'LH SURGE'?

OVULATION WILL 'NOT' OCCUR

33

There are 3 indications that 'OVULATION' has occured on 'DAY 14' of the 'OVARIAN CYCLE'. What are they?

1. BASAL BODY TEMP RISE
2. SLIGHT PAIN OVER OVARY
3. VAGINAL SECRETORY PATTERNS

34

What point in the 'OVARIAN CYCLE' is considered to be the most 'highly fertile period'?

DAY 14 - OVULATION

35

'SPERM' can live approximately how many days?

3-6 DAYS

36

An 'EGG' can be fertilized for about how long?

12-24 HOURS

37

The 'FERTILE PERIOD' is about how many days near the middle of the cycle?

5-6 DAYS

38

'LH' stimulates the transformation of 'FOLLICLE CELLS' into what?

'CORPUS LUTEUM'

(YELLOW BODY)

39

Cells of the 'CORPUS LUTEUM' secrete 2 hormones. What are they?

1. ESTROGENS
2. PROGESTERONE

40

What happens on 'DAY 23' of the 'OVARIAN CYCLE' if pregnancy 'DOES' occur?

CORPUS PERSISTS = INCREASED ESTROGEN/PROGESTERONE AND FSH INHIBITED

NO MORE PERIODS UNTIL AFTER DELIVERY OF BABY

41

What hormone is only present in a pregnant woman, which indicates a 'SUCCESSFUL' fertilization?

(HCG) HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPHIN

42

What does (HCG) HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPHIN do?

MAINTAINS 'CORPUS LUTEUM' DURING PREGNANCY

MAINTAINS LEVELS OF ESTROGEN/PROGESTERONE

43

(HCG) HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPHIN is detectable in the blood/urine as early as how many days 'AFTER' fertilization?

8-10 DAYS

44

Where does (HCG) HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPHIN come from?

IMPLANTATION SITE OF EGG

45

(HCG) HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPHIN is similar to what other 2 common hormones?

1. GH (GROWTH HORMONE)
2. PROLACTIN

46

(HCG) HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPHIN has what type of effects on the body with regards to sugar?

Why is this helpful during pregnancy?

ANTI-INSULIN EFFECTS

DECREASES MATERNAL GLUCOSE UTILIZATION. GLUCOSE IS DIVERTED TO FETUS

47

What happens on 'DAY 23' of the 'OVARIAN CYCLE' if pregnancy does 'NOT' occur?

CORPUS LUTEUM BEINGS TO DEGENERATE

ESTROGEN/PROGESTERONE LEVELS = DROP

48

What maintains the 'CORPUS LUTEUM'?

(HCG) HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPHIN

49

What happens on 'DAY 27' of the 'OVARIAN CYCLE'?

What hormones are present and in what levels?

ESTROGEN = LOW
PROGESTERONE = LOW

ISCHEMIA (LACK OF BLOOD FLOW) TO 'ENDOMETRIUM'

'ENDOMETRIUM' IS SLUFFED OFF

50

What happens a few days after 'DAY 27' of the 'OVARIAN CYCLE'?

NEXY CYCLE BEGINS AFTER 'ENDOMETRIUM' IS SLUFFED OFF AND ESTROGEN/PROGESTERONE LEVELS ARE LOW.

FSH INCREASES

51

What is 'DAY 1-5' considered to be called during the 'MENSTRUAL CYCLE'?

MENSTRUAL PHASE

52

During the 'MENSTRUAL PHASE' most women lose approximately how much blood?

1 - 1.25 oz of BLOOD

(33 - 83ml)

53

What is 'DAY 6-14' considered to be called during the 'MENSTRUAL CYCLE'? (*3 things)

POSTMENSTRUAL, PREOVULATORY, LUTEAL PHASE

- PROLIFERATION OF ENDOMETRIAL CELLS

- STIMULATED BY ESTROGENS FROM FOLLICLE

54

What is 'DAY 27-28' considered to be called during the 'MENSTRUAL CYCLE'?

ISCHEMIC PHASE

55

The 'SECRETORY PHASE' is almost 'always' how many days?

14 DAYS

56

The 'LENGTH OF CYCLES' vary. How many days is it for most women?

26-35 DAY CYCLES

57

Out of all of the 9 different phases during 'MENSTRUATION', what is the most constant?

POSTOVULATORY (14 DAYS)

58

'CYCLE LENGTH' can be affected by 3 different factors. What are the factors?

1. GENETIC
2. NUTRITIONAL FACTORS
3. EXTREME EXERCISE

59

'IMPLANTATION' usually takes place about how long after fertilization?

6-7 DAYS

60

There are typically 'TWO' implantation sites. What are the 2 sites?

1. INTRAUTERINE
2. EXTRAUTERINE

61

Out of the '2' 'IMPLANTATION SITES', which ones it considered to be 'RARE' and found in 'ECTOPIC PREGNANCIES'?

EXTRAUTERINE

62

What is a 'INTRAUTERINE' implantation site defined as?

What 3 places can it be implanted at?

1) UPPER POSTERIOR WALL OF UTERUS
2) CERVICAL IMPLANTATION
3) INTERNAL OS

63

What is a 'EXTRA UTERINE' implantation site defined as?

What 3 places can it be implanted at?

RARE / ECTOPIC PREGNANCY

1) TUBAL
2) ABDOMINAL
3) OVARIAN

64

What % of 'FERTILE ZYGOTES' result in 'MISCARRIAGE'?

30%

65

How long does it take for a 'ZYGOTE' to grow to 'HUMAN' for normal birth weight?

38 WEEKS (9.5 MONTHS)

66

What is the average birth weight of a newborn baby?

7-7.5 POUNDS

67

What is the 'DEVELOPING ORGANISM' referred to as 2 weeks after contraception?

PRE-EMBRYO

68

How long is the baby referred to as an 'EMBRYO'?

WEEKS 3-8 OF DEVELOPMENT

69

After week at, the 'EMBRYO' is reffered to as what?

FETUS

70

After how many weeks is a 'developing organism' referred to as a 'FETUS'?

8 WEEKS+

71

During 'PREGNANCY' and 'LACTATION' there are some extra nutritional requirements. What are they? (*There are 5 of them)

1. EXTRA PROTEIN
2. EXTRA IRON
3. EXTRA CALCIUM
4. EXTRA FOLIC ACID
5. EXTRA VITAMIN B

72

On average, how much weight should a mother 'gain'?

25 POUNDS

73

The '25 POUNDS' that a mother gains can be separated into 5 things. What are the 5 things?

1) 12 lbs = FAT
2) 2 lbs = PLACENTA
3) 2 lbs = AMNIOTIC FLUID
4) 1 lb = BLOOD VOLUME
5) 8 lbs = BABY

74

What is the literal meaning of 'PROGESTERONE'?

FOR-GESTATION

75

What are the levels of 'ESTROGEN'/'PROGESTERONE' like during pregnancy?

HIGH

76

When does (HCG) HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPHIN reach it's peak?

IN THE 2nd MONTH

77

What happens to the 'PITUITARY GLAND' during 'PREGNANCY'?

INCREASES IN SIZE / ACTIVITY

78

What happens to 'BLOOD VOLUME' and 'CARDIAC OUTPUT' during 'PREGNANCY'?

INCREASES

79

What happens to usualy 'CALORIC REQUIREMENTS'?

INCREASE

80

What are the 4 main causes for the '30%' of 'ZYGOTES' miscarried before/right after implantation?

1. GENETIC/CHROMOSOMAL DAMAGE
2. IMMUNE RESPONSES
3. DRUG/POLLUNTANT EXPOSURE
4. IMPROPER HORMONAL PRIMING OF UTERUS

81

After a pregnancy is established, what factors account for '42%' of miscarriages? (*There is only 1)

CHROMOSOMAL/GENETIC ERRORS

82

What percentage of 'ESTABLISHED PREGNANCIES' are terminated by 'miscarriage'?

When does this occur?

20%

DURING THE 1st TRIMESTER

83

What is 'PARTURITION' defined as?

ACT OF GIVING BIRTH

84

There are 3 factors that 'INCREASE' the contractibility of the 'UTERUS'. What are they?

1. ESTROGEN LEVEL INCREASE
2. OXYTOCIN SECRETION
3. PROSTAGLANDIN FORMATION
*In Uterus

(*MNEMONIC = POE)

85

'LABOR' can be divded into 3 stages. What are the 3 stages?

1. CERIVCAL DILATION
2. DELIVERY OF BABY
3. DELIVERY OF PLACENTA

86

The delivery of the 'PLACENTA' is also referred to as what?

AFTERBIRTH

87

About how much does the 'CERVICAL DILATE' during labor?

UP TO 10cm

88

'MENOPAUSE' is defined as what type of 'sexual cycles'?

IRREGULAR

89

At around what age does 'MENOPAUSE' occur?

~52 YEARS OF AGE

90

Puberty in 'WOMEN' is starting _______ and menopause is devloping _______.

1. EARLIER = PUBERTY
2. LATER = MENOPAUSE

91

Compared to women in America, women who have twins, smoke or are in developing countires enter menopause at a(n) ________ age.

EARLIER

92

During 'MENOPAUSE' what hormones are present and in what levels?

Why does this occur?

FOLLICLE DOES NOT DEVELOP

1. LH/FSH = HIGH
2. ESTROGEN/PROGESTERONE = LOW

93

What are some of the signs of 'MENOPAUSE'? (*There are 12)

1. HOT FLASHES
2. IRRITABILITY
3. FATIGUE
4. INSOMNIA
5. CRYING EPISODES
6. DEPRESSION
7. DECREASE IN LIBIDO
8. DRY MOUTH
9. VAGINAL ITCHING
10. VAGINAL DRYNESS
11. HEART PALPITATION
12. BACKACHES

94

Someone with the following would be going through what:

1. HOT FLASHES
2. IRRITABILITY
3. FATIGUE
4. INSOMNIA
5. CRYING EPISODES
6. DEPRESSION
7. DECREASE IN LIBIDO
8. DRY MOUTH
9. VAGINAL ITCHING
10. VAGINAL DRYNESS
11. HEART PALPITATION
12. BACKACHES

MENOPAUSE

95

What are some of the treatment options for 'MENOPAUSE'?

ESTROGEN REPLACEMENT THERAPY (ERT)

96

What is 'PREMARIN'?

MIXTURE OF 6 ESTROGENS DERIVED FROM PREGNANT HORSE URINE

(PREGNANT MARE URINE) = PREMARIN

97

If (ERT) ESTROGEN REPLACEMENT THERAPY is taken during the first years of 'MENOPAUSE' and continues for 7 years after. What will it help to eliminate?

OSTEOPOROSIS (Weak bones)

98

What are some of the 'BENEFITS' of (ERT)? (*There are 5 of them)

1. RELIEVES HOT FLASHES
2. INSOMNIA
3. VAGINAL DRYNESS
4. MOOD SWINGS
5. HEART DISEASE

99

What are some of the 'RISKS' of (ERT)? (*There are 4 of them)

1. BREAST CANCER
2. WEIGHT GAIN
3. GALL BLADDER DISEASE
4. ENDOMETRIAL CANCER

100

What effects does 'ESTROGEN' have on the 'UTERINE WALL DEVELOPMENT'?

STIMULATES IT TO GROW

101

What happens to 'UTERINE LINING' in the presence 'PROGESTERONE'? (*2 things)

1. BECOMES MORE GLANDULAR
2. BECOMES MORE VASCULAR

102

What happens to 'BLOOD VESSELS' in the 'UTERINE LINING' as the concentrations of 'ESTROGEN'/'PROGESTERONE' 'DECLINE'?

BLOOD VESSELS CONSTRICT IN UTERINE LINING

103

What is 'BIRTH CONTROL' defined as?

VOLUNTARY REGULATION OF THE REPRODUCTIVE PROCESS

104

There are 7 forms of 'BIRTH CONTROL/CONTRACEPTION'? What are they?

1. COITUS INTERRUPTUS
2. RHYTHM
3. MECHANICAL BARRIERS
4. CHEMICAL BARRIERS
5. ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES
6. SURGICAL METHODS
7. IUD

105

What is 'COITUS INTERRUPTUS'?

WITHDRAWING THE PENIS FROM THE VAGINA BEFORE EJACULATION

106

What is 'RHYTHM' in regards to 'BIRTH CONTROL'?

ABSTINENCE OF SEXUAL INTERCOURSE DURING THE TIME THE EGG IS AVAILABLE FOR FERTILIZATION (FEW DAYS BEFORE/AFTER OVULATION)

107

What are 2 examples of 'MECHANICAL BIRTH CONTROL'?

1. CONDOM - Sheath placed over erect penis prior to intercourse. Prevents sperm entry to vagina.

2. DIAGPHRAGM - Rubber dome placed over cervix. Prevents sperm entry to 'UTERUS'

108

What are 'CHEMICAL BARRIERS' with regards to 'BIRTH CONTROL'?

What are some examples?

USED TO KILL/IMMOBILIZE SPERM

CREAMS, FOAMS, JELLIES PLACED INSIDE VAGINA PRIOR TO INTERCOURSE

109

What are 'ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES'? What are they usually made of?

REFFERED TO AS THE 'PILL'

Contain 'ESTROGEN-LIKE' and 'PROGESTERONE-LIKE' substances that alter 'ENDORCRINE' regulation of ovaries and 'PREVENT' ovulation.

110

What are the 2 'SURGICAL METHODS' of 'BIRTH CONTROL'?

1. VASECTOMY
2. TUBAL LIGATION

111

What is a 'TUBAL LIGATION'?

FEMAL SURGICAL BIRTH CONTROL

TIE OFF BOTH UTERINE TUBES, PREVENTS TRANSPORT OF SPERM OR EGG THROUGH TUBES.

112

What is 'IUD' birth control?

IRRITATES UTERINE WALL SO ZYGOTE CANNOT IMPLANT

DOES 'NOT' PREVENT FERTILIZATION

113

TRUE or FALSE

The 'IUD' contraceptive DOES prevent fertilization of the sperm and egg.

FALSE

It does NOT prevent fertilization of the sperm and egg.

It 'IRRITATES' the uterine wall so zygote cannot implant.

114

What is the method of 'BIRTH CONTROL' that has a 100% effective rate?

ABSTINENCE

115

Early development of 'SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS' is known as:

PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY

116

'TESTOSTERONE' is produce in the:

LEYDIG CELLS

117

The 'approximate' lifespan of 'SPERM' is:

24-48 HOURS

118

During the onset of 'MENSTRUATION':

1. ESTROGEN LEVELS ARE LOW
2. PROGESTERONE LEVELS = LOW
3. LH LEVELS ARE HIGH
4. ALL OF THE ABOVE

4. ALL OF THE ABOVE

119

'OLVUATION' is caused by:

AN LH SURGE

120

'OVULATION' usually occurs on:

DAY 14 OF THE CYCLE

121

Where does 'FERTILIZATION' usually occur?

IN THE FALLOPIAN TUBES

122

How many 'eggs' does a female posses at 'BIRTH'?

1 MILLION`

123

Which of the following are involved in parturition (BIRTH)?

1. ESTROGEN, OXYTOCIN, PROSTAGLANDINS
2. ESTROGEN, OXYTOCIN, FSH
3. ESTROGEN, LH, PROGESTERONE
4. ESTROGEN, LH, BIRTHIN

1. ESTROGEN, OXYTOCIN, PROSTAGLANDINS

124

Where are the 'SPERM' stored for maturation before they are released from the 'TESTES'?

EPIDIDYMIS