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Flashcards in Respiratory Deck (79):
1

2

The trachea and bronchi are lined by

pseudostratified columnar mucin producing ciliated epithelium

3

The bronchioles are lined by

cuboidal epithelium w/ neuroendocrine cells dispersed throughout (NO mucus glands)

4

The alveoli are lined by

epithelium composed of type I and type II pneumocytes

5

Type ___ alveolar pneumocytes have the ability to proliferate

II; Type II pneumocytes replace Type I if the need arises

6

Defense Mechanism: Nasal clearance filters contaminants of what size

> 10μm - particulate matter, dust, allergens, bacteria, pollens and fungi

7

Defense Mechanism: Mucociliary escalator filters contaminants of what size

3-10μm - important in polluted environments

8

Defense Mechanism: Alveolar clearance/Macrophages filter contaminants of what size

1-5μm (carbon pigments)

9

parenchymal subpleural lesion + enlarged caseating lymph nodes

Primary TB

10

Septic shock predisposes a pt to

ARDS

11

Which lung cancer commonly produced ACTH?

Small cell carcinoma

12

Invasion of blood or lymph vessels by TB and spread

Miliary TB

13

Enlarged, barrel chest, pursed lips

Emphysema

14

Resolving lobar pneumonia may be characterized by

Grey Hepatization

15

Congenital A1AT deficiency is associated with

Panacinar emphysema

16

Diffusely circumscribed tumor, Arise in periphery of lung, beneath the pleura, Glandular differentiation

Adenocarcinoma

17

ARDS is associated with respiratory or metabolic acidosis or alkalosis?

respiratory acidosis

18

Lungs of ARDS appear

heavy, red, boggy

19

Microscopy of lungs w/ ARDS would show

hyaline membrane formation, inflammation and hyperplasia of Type II pneumocytes

20

Emphysema is related to a deficiency of

A1AT

21

A complication of emphysema

cor pulmonale

22

Most common agent of lobar pneumonia

S. pneumo

23

Hemorrhage into alveolar spaces w/ neutrophils, bacteria, and fibrin accumulation describes

Red hepatization

24

cavitary lesion w/ hilar LAD

TB

25

Caseation necrosis + hilar lymph nodes

Ghon Complex

26

What happens to most primary TB lesions?

walled off and remain dormant

27

If TB was found in the kidney what could you assume?

TB invaded the pulmonary vein

28

Asbestos exposure is most likely to result in

bronchogenic carcinoma

29

Irregular mass, near hilum, cells produce keratin

SCC

30

Which tumor has the highest association with smoking?

SCC

31

Tumors secreting hormone or hormone-like proteins is called

Paraneoplastic syndrome

32

Normal EKG but no palpable pulses

PE

33

young female with atherosclerosis, medial hypertrophy of pulmonary a. branches

idiopathic pHTN

34

The cause of idiopathic pHTN is believed to be

Neurohormonal

35

What condition is typically seen with centrilobular emphysema

chronic bronchitis

36

Fever, SOB, rusty sputum, S. pneumo

Lobar pneumonia consolidation

37

Microscopy of Lobar pneumonia would show

intra-alveolar segmented neutrophils w/ bacteria and blood

38

Hilar LAD, asteroid bodies, non-caseating granuloma

Sarcoidosis

39

Subpleural caseating granuloma + hilar LAD

Ghon complex

40

Order of which bronchogenic carcinomas are associated w/ smoking

SCC, Small cell, Adenocarcinoma

41

Microscopy of interstitial lung disease would show

extensive fibrosis of pulmonary parenchyma

42

Mucus gland hyperplasia, goblet cell hypertrophy, squamous metaplasia

Chronic bronchitis

43

Emphysema is characterized by

overinflation and alveolar wall destruction

44

Rapid development of intra-alveolar hyaline membrane formation

ARDS

45

Obstruction -> lung collapse is an example of

absorptive atelectasis

46

Bronchogenic carcinoma least associated w/ smoking

adenocarcinoma

47

Marked dilation of airways + foul sputum

bronchiectasis

48

Electromechanical dissociation on EKG

PE

49

necrotizing infection, irreversible airway dilation, foul sputum

bronchiectasis

50

Mucus plugs, BM thickening, SM hypertrophy, eosinophil infiltrate

Allergic asthma

51

ARDS may result from

pancreatitis, burns, septic shock, toxic drug reaction

52

Which pulmonary feature distinguishes allergic vs non-allergic asthma

eosinophilic infiltrate

53

Systemic miliary TB is related to

invasion of the pulmonary venous system

54

Type II pneumocyte hyperplasia occurs in

ARDS

55

Liver

dual blood supply

56

Caroli’s Disease

Commonly associated with congenital hepatic fibrosis

57

von Meyenburg complex

Rarely malignant

58

Gilbert’s Disease

Not fatal

59

Dubin-Johnson Syndrome

Not fatal

60

alpha-1-antitrypsin

common cause of neonatal cholestasis

61

Cystic Fibrosis

Mutation deltaF508 regulates Chloride ion channel transport on Chromosome 7

62

Hemochromatosis

Autosomal recessive disorder

63

Wilson’s Disease

Autosomal recessive disorder

64

Alcoholic Liver Disease

20% of alcoholics develop cirrhosis

65

autoimmune hepatitis

70% women

66

Neonatal hepatitis

prognosis with surgery

67

Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

is not easily distinguished from alcoholic hepatitis

68

Echinococcal cyst

Common cause of hepatic cysts worldwide

69

Hepatitis A

NOT associated with massive hepatic necrosis and acute liver failure

70

Hepatitis B

Lifetime risk for hepatocellular carcinoma is low for men and women

71

hepatitis testing

HBsAG IgM is the FIRST marker to go up in the window period

72

Autoimmune Cholangitis

associated with IgG4

73

Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

Rapid/Severe course

74

Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

NOT AN Indolent course managed effectively with medication

75

Budd-Chiari Syndrome

HIGH mortality for acute disease

76

T1

solitary tumor without vascular invasion

77

T2

solitary tumor with vascular invasion or multiple tumors, none > 5cm

78

T3

multiple tumors > 5cm, or tumor(s) of any size involving a major branch of the hepatic or portal vein

79

T4

tumor(s) with direct invasion of adjacent organs other than the gallbladder or with perforation of visceral peritoneum