Epithelial lining of the ureters & urinary bladder?
Transitional epithelium or Urothelium
After the urethra passes through the prostate gland, the epithelial lining switches to?
pseudo stratified or columnar
The urethral epithelial linking just prior to exiting the urethral meatus switches to?
Urothelium contains specialized cells called
umbrella cells that allow for stretching with luminal pressure
Renal calculi tend to lodge at which sites in the ureters?
where the ureters cross the iliac borders, ureteropelvic junction, & entrance to the bladder
Ureter obstruction may cause 10X dilation of ureter diameter, this is called?
Long-standing chronic irritation can lead to Ureteritis Follicularis --?
small nests of urothelium w/ granular appearance
Long-standing chronic irritation can lead to Ureteritis Cystica ---?
nests of urothelium w/ cystic dilation that project off the ureteral mucosa
Most common malignancy of the lower UT?
Urothelial cell carcinoma
Benign neoplasms of the lower UT?
Usually mesenchymal in origin (fibrous tissue, blood vessels, lymph, SM)
3 zones of bladder urothelium
Superficial zone - umbrella cells Intermediate zone Basal zone