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Flashcards in Immunology Deck (112):
1

C1 Esterase Inhibitor Deficiency

Hereditary Edema (C1 complement activates pathway)

2

C3 Deficiency

Recurrent pyogenic URI & Sinusitis infections; Increased type III HSN

3

C5-C9 Deficiency

Neisseria infections

4

DAF Deficiency

complement-mediated RBC lysis --> paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

5

IL-1

fever

6

IL-2

T cell activation

7

IL-3

Bone Marrow Activation

8

IL-4

IgE

9

IL-5

IgA & eosinophil differentiation

10

IL-6

fever & acute phase proteins

11

IL-8

Neutrophil chemotaxis

12

IL-10

Inhibits inflammation

13

TNF-alpha

septic shock mediator

14

TNF-beta

Inhibits inflammation

15

INF-alpha & -beta

produced by virus-infected cells --> prime uninfected cells --> if infection occurs viral dsRNA will trigger RNase L & protein kinase --> degradation of viral/host mRNA & protein synthesis inhibition --> Apoptosis

16

Cell surface proteins on B-cells

CD19, CD20, CD21, CD40, MHC-II, B7

17

Cell surface proteins on T cells

TCR, CD3, CD28 (binds B7)

18

Cell surface proteins on Helper T cells

CD4, CD40

19

Cell surface proteins on Cytotoxic T cells

CD8

20

Cell surface proteins on Macrophages

CD14, CD40, MHC-II, B7, Fc, C3b

21

Cell surface proteins on NK cells

CD16, CD56

22

Type I HSN

Ag binds IgE-mast cell & basophil --> histamine release
Delayed response ---> AA derivatives (Leukotriene)

23

Type II HSN

IgM, IgG bind fixed Ag --> Opsonization & Phagocytosis or Complement-Mediated Lysis or ADCC

24

Direct Coombs

detects Ab already bound to RBC

25

Indirect Coombs

detects free Ab

26

Type II HSN

IC deposition (IgG-Ag) in tissues activating complement

27

Serum Sickness

type III HSN --> IC deposition in tissue --> complement activation --> Arthus reaction

28

Arthus reaction

edema, necrosis, complement d/t type III HSN

29

Type IV HSN

delayed T-cell-mediated type --> Tcells bind Ag --> lymphokine release --> macrophage activation

30

Transplant rejections HSN reaction

Type IV

31

TB skin test HSN reaction

Type IV

32

Contact Dermatitis HSN reaction

Type IV

33

Hyperacute Transplantation Rejection

immediate d/t pre-existing recipient Abs react to donor Ag (type II)

34

Features of Hyperacute Transplantation Rejection

thrombosis --> ischemia & necrosis (remove graft)

35

Acute Transplantation Rejection

Cellular (CTLs attack donor MHC) & Humoral (Abs produced against donor tissue) CD4 & 8

36

ANA

SLE, Sjogren Syndrome, non-specific

37

Anti-dsDNA Ab

SLE

38

Anti-Smith Ab

SLE

39

Antiphospholipid Ab

SLE

40

Anticardiolipin Ab

SLE & used for testing for Syphilis (False +)

41

Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome

high levels of antiphospholipid Ab cause a hypercoaguable state --> thrombosis, stroke

42

Antihistone Ab

Drug-induced Lupus

43

Rheumatoid Factor

RA, Sjogren Syndrome

44

anti-SSA & anti-SSB

Sjogren Syndrome

45

Anti-ribonucleoprotein Ab

Sjogren Syndrome

46

CREST Syndrome (limited Scleroderma)

Calcinosis, Raynauds, Esophageal dysmotility, Sclerodactyly, Telangiectasias

47

anti-Centromere Ab

CREST Syndrome (limited Scleroderma)

48

Acute Transplantation Rejection Features

Vasculitis, dense interstitial lymphocytic infiltrates (immunosuppressives)

49

Chronic Transplantation Rejection

T-cells perceive donor MHC as self & attack donor Ags presented

50

Chronic Transplantation Rejection Features

Fibrosis, Irreversible

51

Diffuse Scleroderma Features

Raynauds, Esophageal dysmotility, Lung involvement, Renal involvement

52

Anti-DNA Topoisomerase I

Diffuse Scleroderma

53

Anti-U1 ribonucleoprotein

Mixed connective tissue disorder

54

Autoantibody Anti-ACh receptor

Mysthenia Gravis

55

Autoantibody Anti-basement membrane

Goodpasture's Syndrome

56

Autoantibody Anti-Cardiolipin

SLE

57

Autoantibody Anti-centromere

CREST Syndrome (limited Scleroderma)

58

Autoantibody Anti-Desmoglein

Pemphigus vulgaris

59

Autoantibody Anti-dsDNA

SLE

60

Autoantibody Anti-Smith

SLE

61

Autoantibody Anti-Glutamate Decarboxylase

DM type I

62

Autoantibody Anti-hemidesmosomes

Bullous pemphigus

63

Autoantibody Anti-histone

drug-induced lupus

64

Autoantibody Anti-Jo-1 (Anti-histidyl-tRNA)

Polymyositis

65

Autoantibody Anti-SRP

Polymyositis, Dermatomyositis

66

Autoantibody Anti-Mi-2

Polymyositis, Dermatomyositis

67

Autoantibody Anti-microsomal

Hashimoto thyroiditis

68

Autoantibody Anti-thyroglobulin

Hashimoto thyroiditis

69

Autoantibody Anti-mitochondrial

Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

70

Autoantibody Anti-nuclear

SLE, non-specific

71

Autoantibody Anti-Scl-70 (DNA topoisomerase 1)

Scleroderma (diffuse)

72

Autoantibody Anti-smooth muscle

Autoimmune Hepatitis

73

Autoantibody Anti-SSA/SSB

Sjogrens Syndrome

74

Autoantibody Anti-Ro & Anti-La

Sjogrens Syndrome

75

Autoantibody Anti-TSH receptor

Graves Disease

76

Autoantibody Anti-UI ribonucleotide

Mixed CT disease

77

Autoantibody c-ANCA

Granulomatosis w/ polyangiitis (Wegener)

78

Autoantibody p-ANCA

Microscopic polyangiitis, Churg-Strauss Syndrome

79

Autoantibody Rheumatoid Factor

Rheumatoid Arthritis

80

Autoantibody Anti-CCP

Rheumatoid Arthritis

81

IgA antiendomysial

Celiac Disease

82

Goodpasture's Disease is a Type _____ HSN

type II

83

SLE is a Type _____ HSN

type III

84

SLE genetic susceptibility

HLA-DR2/3

85

X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia defect

BTK defect (Bruton Tyrosine kinase)

86

Acute GVHD

CD8 & cytokines

87

Chronic GVHD

CD4 & cytokines

88

speckled ANA

Mixed CT disease

89

Tacrolimus

transplant rejection prophylactic (FK506) to reduce T cell activation med by IL-2

90

Common Variable Immunodeficiency

defect in Bcell differentiation (low # plasma cells, low Ig)

91

Selective IgA Deficiency

Most common; low IgA, normal IgG & IgM

92

Hyper IgM Syndrome

Class switching defect -> Th fxn reduced (X-linked, defective CD40L)

93

Hyper IgM Syndrome defect

CD40L on Th cells

94

DiGeorge Syndrome

22q11 deletion ---> athymic (T-cell deficiency), absent parathyroid (hypocalcemia), ToF, TA

95

2 causes of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID)

defective IL-2R gamma chain (X-linked)
Deficient Adenosine Deaminase (AR)

96

Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID)

low # T-cells (infants w/ candida, diarrhea, viral, bacterial)

97

Wiskott-Aldrich defect

mutation in WAS gene (X-linked) -> inability to reorganize actin cytoskeleton

98

Wiskott-Aldrich Sx

Thrombocytopenic purpura, eczema, recurrent infection

99

Wiskott-Aldrich Labs

low IgG, IgM
High IgE, IgA

100

Chediak-Higaski

Defect in lysosomal trafficking regulator gene (LYST) -> MT dysfunction

101

Chediak-Higaski Sx

pyogenic infections, albinism, lymphohistiocytosis

102

Chronic Granulomatous Disease

deficient in NADPH oxidase = infxn w/catalase positive S. aureus, Candida, Aspergillus

103

Amyloidosis

Congo red stain showing apple-green biferengence

104

Multiple Myeloma

proliferation of plasma cells --> amyloidosis d/t free light chain deposition in tissues

105

ALL defect

Tyrosine kinase mutations (BCR-ABL), transcription factor mutations (PML, MML)

106

ALL Sx

depression of BM fxn – anemia, infection, bleeding

107

AML Stain

MPO+

108

ALL Stain

PAS+

109

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

lymphocytosis > 4000 (CLL)

110

Mantle Cell Lymphoma Markers

IgM & IgD, CD19, 20, 5

111

Reed Sternberg Cell

Hodgkin

112

Popcorn cell

Reed-Steinburg cell variant - lymphohistiocyte CD20