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Flashcards in Respiratory Dev.- Severson Deck (39):
1

What cells are responsible for secreting pulmonary surfactant?

Type II alveolar cells

2

When does pulmonary surfactant BEGIN to form in the fetus?

20 weeks

3

When does pulmonary surfactant become SUFFICIENCY for a baby to survive?

24 weeks (says his practice questions)

26-28 (says his handout)

4

Where do
Clara cells
Goblet cells
Type 1 pneumocytes and
Type 2 pneumocytes develope from?

The epithelial component of the lung bud (respiratory diverticulum)

5

Congenital Lung cysts

formed by a dilation of terminal bronchioles due to a disturbance in bronchial development during late fetal life

Lungs have a honeycomb appearance

6

The lungs at birth are half inflated with liquid. What gives rise to this liquid?

Lung tissues

7

Describe the respiratory/laryngotracheal diverticulum

an endodermal outgrowth in the floor of the foregut

8

Where do the primitive pleural cavities originate from?

Pericardiperitoneal canals

9

Hyaline membrane disease (Respiratory Distress Syndrome)

Caused by a deficiency of pulmonary surfactant

injury to alveolar wall results in protein and fiberous rich exudation

10

What cells give rise to the cartilages of the larynx?

Neural crest mesenchyme!!!

11

Where does bronchial smooth muscle, cartilage in the bronchi, and pulmonary connective tissue arise from?

splanchnic mesenchyme

12

What is the most common congenital anomaly of the lower respiratory tract?

Tracheoesophageal fistula

13

What does laryngeal cartilage arise from?

Neural crest mesenchyme (ectoderm) of the 4th and 6th pharyngeal arches

14

Describe the difference between Type 1 and Type 2 pneumocytes

Type 1- 97% of alveolar surface. Line the alveoli. Squamous and THIN! Good for gas exchange

Type 2- secrete pulmonary surfactant

NOTE* Type II can serve as precuroses to Type 1 and other Type 2 cells. They proliferate during lung damage!!
HOW NEAT!

15

What part of the developing embryo does the respiratory diverticulum come from?`

Endoderm

16

What do the primitive pleural cavities originate from?

Pericardioperitoneal canals

17

Transesophageal fistula is frequently associated with what in regards to the esophagus?

Esophageal atresia = blind ending of esophagus, continues off the trachea

18

What causes eventration of the diaphragm?

Failure of cervical myotomes to migrate into the transverse septum

19

What causes oligohydraminos?

Bilateral renal agenesis (lack of urine production reduces the amount of amniotic fluid)

20

What 2 things may lung hypoplasia be associated with?

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia

Oligohydraminos

21

When do most of our mature alveoli develop?

Birth to age 8

22

What can you give in pregnancy to accelerate fetal lung development?

Glucocorticoids

23

What respiratory components arise from endoderm?

Epithelium and glands
(of larynx, trachea, bronchi and pulmonary epithelium)

24

What things arise from splanchnic mesenchyme?

Connective tissue
Smooth muscle (endothelial cells)
Cartilage

25

Where does splanchnic mesenchyme come from?

Myoblasts of 4th and 6th pharyngeal arch

26

Lungs at birth are 1/2 inflated with liquid, what gives rise to this liquid?

lung tissue

27

If an infant has a tracheoesophageal fistula, will you likely see polyhydramnios or oligohydramnios?

Polyhydramnios

28

Eventration of the diaphragm results from what?

Failure of cervical myotomes to migrate into transverse septum

29

What is ectopic cordis a result of?

Faulty development of sternum and pericardium
(secondary to incomplete fusion of lateral folds)

...so the heart is outside of the thorax!

30

What forms the central tendon of the diaphragm?

Septum Transversum!

31

When is do the alveoli completely mature?

Alveolar period of lung maturation = late fetal period to 8 years old

32

Describe the difference between Type 1 and Type 2 pneumocytes

Type 1- 97% of alveolar surface. Line the alveoli. Squamous and THIN! Good for gas exchange

Type 2- secrete pulmonary surfactant

NOTE* Type II can serve as precuroses to Type 1 and other Type 2 cells. They proliferate during lung damage!!
HOW NEAT!

33

What is a tracheoesophageal fistula?

Results from abnormal partitioning by the tracheoesophageal septus producing abnormal communication between the trachea and esophagus

34

What condition is most likely to be seen with a tracheoesophageal fistula?

Polyhydramnios = amniotic fluid accumulates

35

Transesophageal fistula is frequently associated with what in regards to the esophagus?

Esophageal atresia = blind ending of esophagus, continues off the trachea

36

What causes eventration of the diaphragm?

Failure of cervical myotomes to migrate into the transverse septum

37

What embryonic conditions leads to ectopic cordis?

Heart is found outside body
Fault development of the sternum and pericardium, secondary to incomplete fusion of the lateral folds

38

What can lead to the absence of the central tendon of the diaphragm?

The transverse septum failed to develope

39

Infant has left hypoplastic lung and herniation of abdominal intestines into the left thoracic cavity.... what failed to develop?

Pleuroperitoneal membrane