Respiratory Physiology (Part 1) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Respiratory Physiology (Part 1) Deck (72)
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1

What is the function of the respiratory system?

To exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide between the environment and the cells of the body

2

The structures of the respiratory system are subdivided into 2 zones, what are they?

- The conducting zone
- The respiratory zone

3

What structures are included in the conducting zone?

- nose
- nasopharynx
- larynx
- trachea
- bronchi
- bronchioles
- terminal bronchioles

4

What are the funcitons of the conducting zone?

Bring air into and out of the respiratory zone for gas exchange and to warm, humidify, and filter the air before it reaches the critical gas exchange region

5

What is the main conducting airway?

the trachea

6

The trachea divides into how many different divisions?

23

7

What lines the conducting airways and what are their function?

Mucus-secreting and ciliated cells that function to remove inhaled particles

8

Do the walls of the conducting airways contain smooth muscle?

yes

9

Describe sympathetic innervation of smooth muscle in the conducting airways

Sympathetic adrenergic neurons activate beta2 receptors which leads to relaxation and dilation of the airways

10

Describe parasympathetic innervation of smooth muscle in the conducting airways

Parasympathetic cholinergic neurons activate muscarinic receptors, which leads to contraction and constriction of the airways

11

How are beta2-adrenergic agonists help treat asthma?

They are used to dilate the airways

12

The alveoli lined structures of the respiratory zone participate in what?

gas exchange

13

What structures are included in the respiratory zone?

- respiratory bronchioles
- alveolar ducts
- alveolar sacs

14

Why are the respiratory bronchioles considered transitional structures?

They have cilia and smooth muscle like the conducting airways, but are also considered part of the gas exchange region because alveoli occasionally bud off their walls

15

What lines the alveolar ducts and alveolar sacs?

alveloi

16

What are alveoli?

Pouchlike envaginations found in the walls of the respiratory zone in which gas exchange occurs

17

Why can the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between alveolar gas and pulmonary capillary blood occur rapidly and efficiently?

Because the alveolar walls are thin and have a large surface area for diffusion

18

What are the epithelial cells that line the alveolar walls called?

type I and II pneumocytes

19

What do the type II pneumocytes synthesize?

Pulmonary surfactant which have regenerative capacity for the type I and II pneumocytes

20

What are the phagocytic cells in the alveoli called?

alveolar macrophages

21

Why is pulmonary blood flow not distributed evenly in the lungs?

Because of gravitational effects

22

When a person is standing, blood flow is ____ at the apex and _____ at the base of the lungs

lowest

highest

23

What happens to the gravitational effects when a person is supine?

They disappear

24

How is the regulation of pulmonary blood flow accomplished?

by altering the resistance of the pulmonary arterioles

25

What controls changes in pulmonary arteriolar resistance?

local factors, mainly oxygen

26

What is bronchial circulation?

The blood supply to the conducting airways (which do not participate in gas exchange) and is a very small fraction of the total pulmonary blood flow

27

Static volumes of the lungs are measured with what?

a spirometer

28

What does normal tidal volume equal?

500 mL

29

What does normal tidal volume include?

The volume of air that fills the alveoli plus the volume of air that fills the airways

30

What is inspiratory reserve volume?

The additional volume that can be inspired above tidal volume