Flashcards in Neurophysiology (Part 1) Deck (163)
Sensory is synonymous with ___erent
Motor is synonymous with ___erent
What 2 things compose the CNS?
brain and spinal cord
What are the major divisions/structures of the CNS?
- spinal cord
- cerebral hemispheres
The spinal cord extends from the base of the skill to where?
the first lumbar segment
What are the 3 components of the brainstem?
Which cranial nerves arise from the brainstem?
What does the medulla contain?
- Autonomic centers that regulate breathing and blood pressure
- Centers that coordinate swallowing, coughing, and vomiting reflexes
What is the function of the pons?
Participates in balance and maintenance of posture, in regulation of breathing, and relays information from the cerebral hemispheres to the cerebellum
What does the midbrain do?
It participates in control of eye movements, and also contains relay nuclei of the auditory and visual systems
Where does the cerebellum lie?
Dorsal to the pons and medulla
What are the functions of the cerebellum?
Coordination of movement, panning and execution of movement, maintenance of posture, and coordination of head and eye movements.
What 2 structures make up the diencephalon?
the thalamus and hypothalamus
What information does the thalamus process?
Almost all sensory information going to the cerebral hemispheres and almost all motor information coming from the cerebral cortex
Where does the hypothalamus lie?
Ventral to the thalamus
What does the hypothalamus do?
It contains centers that regulate body temperature, food intake, and water balance
The hypothalamus is also a endocrine gland that controls what?
the secretions of the pituitary gland
How does the hypothalamus control secretions of the anterior pituitary gland?
It secretes releasing hormones and release-inhibiting hormones into hypophysial portal blood that causes release (or inhibition) if the anterior pituitary hormones
How does the hypothalamus control secretions of the posterior pituitary gland?
It contains the cell bodies of neurons of the posterior pituitary gland that secrete ADH and oxytocin
What are the 5 components of the cerebral hemispheres?
- cerebral cortex
- underlying white matter
- 3 deep nuclei:
> basal ganglia
What are the functions of the cerebral cortex?
- higher motor functions
What are the 4 lobes of the cerebral cortex?
Primary areas of the cerebral cortex are the ____ direct and involve the ____ number of synapses.
Tertiary areas of the cerebral cortex require the ____ complex processing and involve the ____ number of synapses.
How are secondary and tertiary sensory and motor areas involved with more complex processing?
by connecting to association areas
What are the 3 deep nuclei of the cerebral hemispheres?
- basal ganglia
What does the basal ganglia consist of?
The caudate nucleus, the putamen, and the globus pallidus
What do the basal ganglia do?
Receive input from all lobes of the cerebral cortex and have projections, via the thalamus, to the frontal cortex to assist in regulating movement
The hippocampus and amygdala are part of what system?