Neurophysiology (Part 1) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neurophysiology (Part 1) Deck (163)
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1

Sensory is synonymous with ___erent

afferent

2

Motor is synonymous with ___erent

efferent

3

What 2 things compose the CNS?

brain and spinal cord

4

What are the major divisions/structures of the CNS?

- spinal cord
- brainstem
- cerebellum
- diencephalon
- cerebral hemispheres

5

The spinal cord extends from the base of the skill to where?

the first lumbar segment

6

What are the 3 components of the brainstem?

- medulla
- pons
- midbrain

7

Which cranial nerves arise from the brainstem?

CN III-XII

8

What does the medulla contain?

- Autonomic centers that regulate breathing and blood pressure
- Centers that coordinate swallowing, coughing, and vomiting reflexes

9

What is the function of the pons?

Participates in balance and maintenance of posture, in regulation of breathing, and relays information from the cerebral hemispheres to the cerebellum

10

What does the midbrain do?

It participates in control of eye movements, and also contains relay nuclei of the auditory and visual systems

11

Where does the cerebellum lie?

Dorsal to the pons and medulla

12

What are the functions of the cerebellum?

Coordination of movement, panning and execution of movement, maintenance of posture, and coordination of head and eye movements.

13

What 2 structures make up the diencephalon?

the thalamus and hypothalamus

14

What information does the thalamus process?

Almost all sensory information going to the cerebral hemispheres and almost all motor information coming from the cerebral cortex

15

Where does the hypothalamus lie?

Ventral to the thalamus

16

What does the hypothalamus do?

It contains centers that regulate body temperature, food intake, and water balance

17

The hypothalamus is also a endocrine gland that controls what?

the secretions of the pituitary gland

18

How does the hypothalamus control secretions of the anterior pituitary gland?

It secretes releasing hormones and release-inhibiting hormones into hypophysial portal blood that causes release (or inhibition) if the anterior pituitary hormones

19

How does the hypothalamus control secretions of the posterior pituitary gland?

It contains the cell bodies of neurons of the posterior pituitary gland that secrete ADH and oxytocin

20

What are the 5 components of the cerebral hemispheres?

- cerebral cortex
- underlying white matter
- 3 deep nuclei:
> basal ganglia
> hippocampus
> amygdala

21

What are the functions of the cerebral cortex?

- perception
- higher motor functions
- cognition
- memory
- emotion

22

What are the 4 lobes of the cerebral cortex?

- frontal
- parietal
- temporal
- occipital

23

Primary areas of the cerebral cortex are the ____ direct and involve the ____ number of synapses.

most

fewest

24

Tertiary areas of the cerebral cortex require the ____ complex processing and involve the ____ number of synapses.

most

greatest

25

How are secondary and tertiary sensory and motor areas involved with more complex processing?

by connecting to association areas

26

What are the 3 deep nuclei of the cerebral hemispheres?

- basal ganglia
- hippocampus
- amygdala

27

What does the basal ganglia consist of?

The caudate nucleus, the putamen, and the globus pallidus

28

What do the basal ganglia do?

Receive input from all lobes of the cerebral cortex and have projections, via the thalamus, to the frontal cortex to assist in regulating movement

29

The hippocampus and amygdala are part of what system?

limbic

30

What is the hippocampus involved in?

memory