Renal Anatomy and Blood Supply Flashcards Preview

630: Medical Physiology > Renal Anatomy and Blood Supply > Flashcards

Flashcards in Renal Anatomy and Blood Supply Deck (29):
1

What are the 3 functions in which the kidneys work?

- as excretory organs
- as regulatory organs
- endocrine organs

2

How do the kidneys function as excretory organs?

They ensure that those substances in excess or that are harmful are excreted in urine in appropriate amounts

3

How do the kidneys function as regulatory organs?

They maintain a constant volume and composition of the body fluids by varying the excretion of solutes and water

4

How do the kidneys function as endocrine organs?

They synthesize and secrete 3 hormones: renin, erythropoietin, and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol

5

What are the 3 main regions of the kidneys in the sagittal section?

- the cortex is the outer region
- the medulla is the central region
- the papilla is the innermost tip of the inner medulla

6

What do the papillae empty into?

pouches called minor and major calyces

7

The minor and major calyces are extensions of what?

The ureter

8

What is the functional unit of the kidney?

The nephron

9

Each kidney contains approximately how many nephrons?

1 million

10

What does a nephron consist of?

A glomerulus and a renal tubule

11

What surround the glomerular capillaries?

the Bowman's capsule

12

What are the 5 segments that comprise the renal tubule?

- the proximal convoluted tubule
- the proximal straight tubule
- the loop of Henle
- the distal convoluted tubule
- the collecting ducts

13

What is unique about the cells of the proximal convoluted tubule?

They have an extensive development of microvilli, called a brush border, on their luminal side

14

What is the function of the brush border?

It provides a large surface area for the major reabsorptive function of the proximal convoluted tubule

15

What are the 2 types of nephrons?

- superficial cortical nephrons
- juxtamedullary nephrons

16

Where do superficial cortical nephrons have their glomeruli?

In the outer cortex

17

Where do juxtamedullary nephrons have their glomeruli?

near the corticomedullary border

18

Which type of nephrons have higher filtration rates? Explain why

The juxtamedullary nephrons because their glomeruli are larger than those of the superficial cortical nephrons

19

Superficial cortical nephrons have ____ loops of Henle. Juxtamedullary nephrons have ____ loops of Henle.

short

long

20

Describe the path blood takes as it enters the kidneys

Blood enters via the renal artery, which branches into interlobar arteries, arcuate arteries, and then cortical radial arteries

21

What do the smallest arteries (cortical radial arteries) subdivide into?

The first set of arterioles, the afferent arterioles

22

Where do the afferent arterioles deliver blood to?

The first capillary network, the glomerular capillaries

23

What occurs across the glomerular capillaries?

ultrafiltration

24

Blood leaves the capillaries via what?

a second set of arterioles, the efferent arterioles

25

Where do the efferent arterioles deliver blood to?

To the secondary capillary network, the peritubular capillaries

26

What occurs across the peritubular arteries?

Solutes and water are reabsorbed into the from the nephron

27

Where does blood flow after exiting the peritubular arteries?

Into small veins and then into the renal vein

28

How does juxtamedullary nephron blood flood differ?

The peritubular capillaries have a specialization called the vasa recta, which are long, hairpin-shaped blood vessels that follow the same course as the loop of Henle

29

What do the vasa recta serve as?

Osmotic exchangers for the production of concentrated urine