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Flashcards in Respiritary Disease Deck (33)
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1
Q

Clinical evidence of a respiratory problem

A
  • coughing
  • thumping or dyspnoea
  • fever
  • nasal discharge
2
Q

Things to think about with housing and environment

A
  • ventilation
  • stocking rate
  • all-in - all-out?
  • mixing of age groups in a single airspace?
  • temperature control
  • humidity
3
Q

Diseases in the suckling period (4)

A
  • Glasser’s
  • PRRS
  • Enzootic pneumonia
  • Swine influenza
4
Q

Diseases in the weaners, growers and finishers (8)

A
  • bordetella (3-4 weeks)
  • *Glasser’s (3weeks- adult)
  • *enzootic pneumonia (6-8 weeks - finisher)
  • *PRRS (4-12 weeks -adult)
  • mucoplasma hyorhinis (3-4weeks - adult)
  • *pleuropneumonia (6-8 weeks +)
  • *pasteurellosis (6 weeks +, mainly 12 weeks +)
  • *influenza
5
Q

Diseases in Adults (6)

A
  • influenza
  • PRRS
  • Glassers
  • Enzootic pneumonia
  • pleuropneumonia
  • pasteurellosis
6
Q

Progressive atropic rhinitis

Facts (6)

A
  • neonatal, non-immune piglets
  • toxigenic P multiocida Type D
  • colonises in nasal cavity after initial damage by bordetella
  • osteoblasts killed by toxin or transform into fibroblasts
  • osteoclastic activity is stimulated
  • no remodelling of conchae and facial bones
7
Q

CS of Progressive atropic rhinitis (5)

A
  • severe sneezing, blockage of lachrymal ducts
  • epistaxis, purulent rhinitis
  • distortion of the snout
  • shortening of the upper jaw and malocclusion of the teeth
  • depression of the growth rate by 30-40g/day
8
Q

PM Progressive atropic rhinitis

A
  • shortening of the upper jaw
  • absence of conchae at premolar 2
  • distortion of nasal septum
  • isolation of toxigenic P. multocida
9
Q

Progressive atropic rhinitis

  • Epidemiology (5)
  • Dx (4)
  • Tx
  • control (4)
A
  • spread via respiratory route
  • spread in carrier pigs
  • spread by formites
  • rapid killing by drying
  • survives in water for 14 days

Dx;

  • CS & PM
  • isolation of toxigenic P multocida
  • PCR
  • serum antibody to toxin

Tx:
- penicillin/ampicillin/tylosin/trimethoprim sulphonamide (parenternally)

control:

  • interrupted treatment of above at 2, 10 and 21 days
  • vaccination
  • colostrum
  • al in, all out
10
Q

Glasser’s disease

A
  • haemophilus parasuis
  • infection by the upper respiratory tract –> bacteraemia –> septicaemia/localises to cayse polyserositis, meingitis or arthritis in 12-36 hours
  • serotypes 4&5 are most pathogenic
11
Q

Glasser’s disease CS (8)

A
  • 3-6 weeks or more (recently weaned are most common)
  • fever
  • anorexia and reduced water intake
  • nasal discharge, tachypnoea and coughing
  • lameness
  • fluctuant, hot, swollen joints
  • meningitis
  • death within 2-5 days
12
Q

Glasser’s disease pathology (7)

A
  • purulent rhinitis
  • fibrinous pleurisy, peritonitis and pericarditis
  • enlarged spleen
  • petechial haemorrhage
  • turbid joint fluid
  • purulent meningitis
  • bronchopneumonia
13
Q

Glasser’s disease

epidemiology (3)
Dx (3)

A
  • direct transmission
  • rapidly killed by drying
  • maternal antibody protects for 2-4 weeks

Dx:

  • CS : fever, lameness, swollen ears
  • PM: fibrinous peritonitis, pleurisy and pericarditis
  • H. Parasuis isolation from trachea
14
Q

Glasser’s disease

  • Tx (3)
  • Control (3)
A

Tx:

  • parenternal medication of individuals
  • water medication of groups (but remember they have a reduced water intake!)
  • penicillin/ amoxycillin/ampicillin/tetracycline/ceftiofur/enrofloxacillin/treimethoprim sulphonamide

control:

  • feed medication of above at risk period
  • vaccination
  • minimise stress
15
Q

Enzootic pneumonia (6)

A
  • mycoplasma hyopneumoniae
  • inactivated by drying within 48hours
  • respiratory entry
  • adhere to cilia of tracheal, bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium
  • cause clumping and loss of cilia
  • 2 week incubation
16
Q

Enzootic pneumonia CS (5)

A
  • 3-10 weeks old
  • barking cough
  • lasts ± 50 days
  • uneven size: depression of growth rate and feed conversion
17
Q

Enzootic pneumonia pathology

A
  • classic pneumonia of cranial middle and cranial portion of caudal lobe and accessory lobe
  • enlarged bronchial LNs
  • fawn colour of early lesions
  • ## well demarcared
18
Q

Enzootic pneumonia

epidemiology (3)
Dx (6)

A

epidemiology:

  • carrier pigs
  • aerosol for 3km
  • formites for short distances

Dx:

  • coughing pigs with uneven growth
  • dry, non-productive cough
  • characteristic lung lesions
  • cuffing type pneumonia
  • demonstration by PCT, IP or IF
  • ELISA
19
Q

Enzootic pneumonia

A

Tx:

  • water medication with tiamulin/tetracucline/doxycycline/tylosin/florfenicol
  • feed medication
  • perenternal treatment of severely affected with tiamulin, tetracyclines, florfenicol

Control:

  • low heard level use of tetracyclines/tiamulin/tylosin (continuous, pulsed or strategic)
  • vaccination
  • isolation
  • depopulation and restocking
  • all in all out
  • avoid mixing and moving
20
Q

PRRS

  • CS (2)
  • pathogenesis
A

CS:

  • laboured breathing in piglets only with acute breakdown
  • raised respiratory rate in weaners and growers accompanied by flushing of the skin

Pathogenesis:

  • infection by respiratory rate, contact or at insemmination
  • viraemia –> destruction of alveolar macrophages –> multlipication in endothelial cells leading to plasma leaks –> interstitial pneumonitits
21
Q

PRRS

pathology (7)

A

Pathology:

  • anterior lobe rubbery pneumonia
  • excess pleural and pericardial fluid
  • enlarged LN
  • blebbing of bronchiolar epithelium
  • no alveolar macrophages
  • proliferative interstitial pneumonia
  • type 2 pneumocyte proliferation
22
Q

PRRS

  • Dx (6)
  • Control (5)
A

DX:

  • CS
  • PM
  • absence of alveolar macrophages and interstitial pneumonia
  • virus isolation
  • serology (ELISA) 3 weeks later
  • PCR

Control:

  • isolation
  • purchase sero-negative pigs
  • use of filtration on air intakes
  • three sites production
  • vaccinate
23
Q

Influenza (7)

A
  • aerosol or contact infection
  • incubation of 1-2 days
  • virus multiplies in epithelial cells of tracheobronchial tree infecting most cells by 24 hours
  • infected neutrophil-rich exudate in bronchioles
  • recovery by day 9
  • more common in winter
  • bird and man may introduce
24
Q

Influenza CS (9)

A
  • whole herd involvement
  • lethargic
  • prostration
  • anorexia
  • fever
  • productive cough, sneezing and dyspnoea
  • conjunctival discharge
  • loss of condition
  • abortion/return to service in sows
25
Q

Influenza pathology (6)

A
  • sharply demacated plum coloured lung lesions
  • mucus and exudate in bronchi
  • old lesions are depressed, pale and firm
  • thickened alveolar septae
  • bronchi filled with shed neutrophils etc.
  • proliferative lesion of bronchiolar epithelium
26
Q

Influenza

  • Dx (4)
  • Control (4)
A

Dx:

  • CS and PM
  • demonstration of virus in lesions
  • rise in serum antibody to virus strain only
  • virus isolation

control:

  • vaccination is restriced to sows only
  • treat assymptomatically
  • isolate herd
27
Q

Pleuropneumonia Facts (5)

A
  • pleurisy and pneumonia
  • actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae
  • gram negative coccobacillus
  • 3 main toxins: 1,2,3 –> each may be haemolytic or cytotoxic or both
  • sensitive to drying
28
Q

Pleuropneumonia pathogenesis (2)

A

infection by contact/aerosol –> bacreria adhere to tonsillar epithelium –> inhaled alveoli in non-immune pigs where they multiply (mainly in diaphragmatic lobes) –> adhere to alveolar epithelium
- resist phagocytosis by capsules and complement resistence

29
Q

Pleuropneumonia CS (7)

A
  • rapid onset (3-6 hours) from 6-8 weeks
  • fever
  • coughing can be severe enough to cause vomiting
  • raised RR and respiratory distress with froth on the lips
  • exercise intolerance, inappetence & dehydration
  • congested extremities
  • death can occur 4-6 hours after CS onset
30
Q

Pleuropneumonia pathology (5)

A
  • carcase dehydrated. poor condition, froth on lips, cold extremities
  • excess pleural and pericardial fluid
  • pneumonia in diaphragmatic lobes
  • lesions red or black before pleurisy but rapidly become covered in fibrin
  • lesions become firm and whitish with necrotic centres
31
Q

Pleuropneumonia

economic impacts (4)
transmission (5)
A
  • reduced growth rate
  • reduced feed converstion
  • death
  • lesions at slaughter

Transmission

  • aerosol/contact
  • continuous stocking
  • mixing pigs
  • carrier pigs
  • high humidity, low temps
32
Q

Pleuropneumonia

  • Dx (6)
  • Tx (4)
  • Control (3)
A

DX:

  • CS
  • lesions
  • isolation
  • demonstration of antigens in tissue
  • PCR
  • demonstration of serum antibody to cytotoxin

Tx:

  • penicillin/tetracyclines/ampicillin/florfenicol/ceftiofur/tiamulin
  • parenternal treatment for sick pigs
  • feed medication for later stages and pervention
  • Tx does not cure lesions

control:

  • isolation and purchase of free pigs
  • all in all out system
  • vaccinate
33
Q

Pneumonic pasteruellosis (9)

A
  • pasteurella multocida type A
  • secondary to enzootic pneumonia or other diseases
  • causes acute pneumonia with fever and congestion of extremeities
  • fibrinous pleurisy common
  • die or become chronically infected
  • treat acute disease parenteranlly
  • water medicate group
  • penicillin/tetracycline/cetiofut/trimethoprimm sulphonimide/florfenicol
  • improve ventilation and reduce ammonia levels