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Flashcards in Retroviridae Deck (20)
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1

To which virus family does the rabies virus belong?

 Rhabdoviridae (In the Lyssavirus genus)
 Noroviridae
 Retroviridae
 Vesiculoviridae





 Rhabdoviridae (In the Lyssavirus genus)

2

What is the current status of rabies or rabies-like viruses risk level in North America?

 high risk
 no risk
 low risk 
 medium

 low risk 
(Mostly, because the reservoir has been pushed back into the wild due to a successive vaccination program in dogs. Also remember that there is a vaccine for wild animals such as skunks, raccoons and foxes, in form of bait. It was developed by Dr. Charles Ruprecht (once a member of Faculty at RUSVM).)

3

The Ephemeralvirus genus has an important member that causes disease in:

 pigs
 pigeons
 dogs
 cattle

cattle

4

Which of the following descriptions of Rhabdoviridae virion properties is accurate?

 enveloped, cone-shaped, double stranded, linear, negative sense RNA
 enveloped, cone-shaped, single stranded, linear, positive sense RNA
 enveloped, cone-shaped, double stranded, circular, negative sense RNA
 enveloped, cone-shaped, single stranded, linear, negative sense RNA

 enveloped, cone-shaped, single stranded, linear, negative sense RNA

5

If you wanted to design a neutralizing antibody-inducing vaccine against rabies virus to prevent its attachment and internalization, which protein of the virus would you target?

 G protein 
 C protein
 N protein
 P protein

 G protein
 (Because the G proteins is the largest surface glycoprotein of Rhabdoviriadae which induces highly neutralizing antibodies in animals.)

6

Which rhabdovirus protein facilitates budding from an infected cell?

 G protein
 C protein
 M protein
 P protein

 M protein

7

Where in the cell do rhabdoviruses replicate?

 nuclear pore
 endoplasmic reticulum
 nucleus
 cytoplasm

cytoplasm

8

The G, N, P, M and L mRNAs of rhabdoviruses are all translated by free cytoplasmic ribosomes.

T or F

False
With the exception of the G protein all are translated in free cytoplasmic ribosomes. The G protein is translated by ER associated ribosomes)

9

The rabies virus infects all mammals and so it is a zoonotic pathogen.

 True / False





True  

10

Rabies virus infection is maintained in two epidemiological cycles, urban and sylvatic. What is meant by “urban cycle”?

 infection is maintained only in wild animals
 the virus can only be secreted with saliva
 the virus can only infect salivary glands
 the reservoir is the dog

the reservoir is the dog
 (The sylvatic cycle refers to the virus being maintained in wild animals.)

11

Which of the following is a phase in clinical rabies?

 paralytic phase
 prodromal phase
 fury phase
all of the above

all of the above 
(Remember, this course of rabies is apparent only for the dog. In other large domestic animals it may not present through all the phases. That's why the prodromal may be overlooked, particularly in cattle., unless you are very attentive Veterinary Doctor.)

12

At what phase of clinical rabies would you observe photophobia and the resulting excessive salivation?

 fury phase
 paralytic phase 
 prodromal phase
all of the above

 paralytic phase (The reason is that the animal cannot swallow saliva or water due to pharygeal paralysis)

13

Fury in rabid dogs is associated with virus extensively replicating in the …

 limbic system of the nervous system 
 salivary glands
 spinal cord
 muscles

 limbic system of the nervous system (Virus binds to receptor for acetylcholine at neuromuscular junctions. That is how the virus gains access to the nervous system.)

14

If histopathology results reveal the presence of Negri bodies in the hypothalamus of an animal suspected of rabies, it is enough to confirm rabies virus infection.

True or False

 True  (Bear in mind that the presence of eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies (Negri Bodies) in neurons is the only typical finding during histopathology. Thus, Negri bodies are pathognomonic for rabies virus infection.)

15

A small farmer has two horses, 6 cows and 15 pigs. He reports three sick animals (a cow, a horse and 5 pigs). You recognize oral vesicles in the cow and the horse, and coronary band vesicles in the pigs. From choices given below, what disease should come to your mind first before you consider other differentials?

 foot-and-mouth disease
 vesicular stomatitis 
 A small farmer has two horses, 6 cows and 15 pigs. He vesicular disease of swine
 Rinderpest

 vesicular stomatitis (This should be your first thought, because the horse is involved. Remember that vesicular stomatitis is the only vesicular disease in the horse. However, the virus that causes vesicular stomatitis can cause vesicles in the mouth of cattle and on coronary bands of pigs.)

16

A horse is presented with vesicular lesions shown in the photomicrograph below. What is your initial clinical diagnosis and why?

 swine vesicular disease, because horses can be infected with SVDV
 foot-and-mouth disease, because horses are highly susceptible to FMDV
 excluding thermal burns, it is vesicular stomatitis, because it is the only vesicular disease in horses
 vesicular exanthema of horses, because the equine coital exanthema virus causes such lesions

  

 excluding thermal burns, it is vesicular stomatitis, because it is the only vesicular disease in horses

17

Vesicular stomatitis is a vector-bone disease.
T / F

 True
 (Virus is transmitted by biting insects. Sand flies in the tropics and subtropics. Virus has been isolated from black flies, houseflies and mosquitoes.)

18

Which of the following are reservoirs of rabies-like viruses in North America?

 bison, racoons, puma
 dogs, fox, cattle
 birds house flies, mosquitoes
 racoons, skunk, fox

 racoons, skunk, fox

19

Rabies virus infection is maintained in two epidemiological cycles, urban and sylvatic. What is meant by “sylvatic cycle”?

 the virus can only be secreted with saliva
 the virus can only infect salivary glands
 infection is maintained by dogs
 infection is maintained only in wild animals

infection is maintained only in wild animals

20

Black flies, houseflies and mosquitoes, in general biting insects, can transmit vesicular stomatitis virus.

T / F

True