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Flashcards in Review Topnatch 4 Deck (102):
0

TCA mnemonics

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1

Succinate thiokinase

GTP

2

A ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

NADH, CO2

3

Malate dehydrogenase

NADH

4

Aonitase

Nine

5

Succinate dehydrogenase

FADH2

6

ETC
Entry point for NADH

Complex 1

7

ETC
Entry point for FADH2

Complex 2

8

ETC

Generation of proton gradient

Complex 1,3,4

9

ETC
ATP production by oxidative phisphorylation

Complex 5

10

Cimplex 1 inhibitor

Amytal

11

Uncoupler

Aspirin

12

Direct inhibiyion ATP synthesis

Oligomycin

13

Omplex 4 inhibitor

Carbon monoxide

14

Omplex 3 inhibitor

Dimercaprol

15

Gluconeogenesis function

Generates new glucose molecules

16

Gluconeogenesis location

Cytoplasm 90% liver, 10% kidney

17

Gluconeogenesis reactants

Pyruvates

18

Gluconeogenesis products

Glucose

19

Gluconeogenesis rate limiting step

Fructose 1-6 bisphosphatase

20

Creates 1-4 linkages and elongates the glycogen chains

Glycogen synthesis

21

Trnasfers 5-8 glucosyl residues and creates1-6 linkages

Branching enzyme

22

Cleaves a 1-4 and a 1-6 bond to produce free glucose

Debranching enzyme

23

Cleaves a1-4 bonds to produce glucose 1P

Glycogen phophorylase

24

Glycogenesis function

Generates new glycogen molecules

25

Glycogenesis location

Cytoplasm, liver and muscle

26

Glycogenesis reactants

UDP glucose

27

Glycogenesis products

Glycogen

28

Glycogenesis rate limiting step

Elongation of glycogen formation a 1-4 glyosiic bond via
Glycogen synthase

29

Glycogenolysis function

Breaks down glycogen to form new glucose

30

Glycogenolysis location

Cytoplasm, liver and muscle

31

Glycogenolysis reactants

Glyogen

32

Glycogenolysis products

Glucose 1 phosphate and free glucose

33

Glycogenolysis rate limiting step

Glycogen phophorylase

34

Glycogenolysis stimulating hormone

Glucagon
Epinephrine

35

Glycogenolysis type of metabolism

Catabolic

36

Glycogenesis type of metabolism

Anabolic

37

Glycogenesis stimulating hormone

Insulin

38

Pentose phosphate pathway function

Generates NADH and ribose

39

Pentose phosphate pathway location

Cytoplasm in liver, RBC, lactating mammares, adrenals

40

Pentose phosphate pathway reactants

G6P

41

Pentose phosphate pathway products

NADPH, ribose 5 p

42

Pentose phosphate pathway rate limiting step

G6PD

43

Isocitrate to a ketoglutarate
Pyruvate to acetyl Coa

NAD

44

FAD

Pyruvate to acetyl COA
Succinate to fumarate

45

NADH

Pyruvate to lactate

46

NADAPH

Acetyl CoA palmiatate

47

Flatulence, cramps, and diarrhea after ingestion of dairy products

Lactose intolerance

48

Severe fasting hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly, elevated glycogen in liver

Von gierke disease
G6pD deficiency

49

Hepatomegaly, milder form of vongierke disease

Cori disease

50

Myoglobinuria with strenous exercise

Mc ardle syndrome
Skeletal muscle, glycogen phosphorylase deficiency

51

Leads to hemolytic anemia due topoor RBC defense against oxidizing agents

G6PD deficiency

52

Galactosemia, galatosuria, cataract in early childhood

Galactokinase def

53

Benign fructosuria

Fructokinase deificiency

54

Fructosuria, severemhypoglycemia, lactic acidosis, liver damage, jaundice

Fructose intolerance

55

Long chain of carboxylic acid with no double bond

Saturated FA

56

Long chain of carboxylic acid with one double bond

Unsaturated FA

57

Long chain of carboxyliv acid with two or more double bonds

PUFA

58

Fatty acids associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis

Trans FA
Saturated FA

59

Essential fatty acids

Linoleic acid

60

Immediate precursor of prostaglandins

Arachidonic acid

61

End product of fatty acid synthesis

Palmitic acid

62

2 primary bile acids

Cholic acid
Chenodeoxycolic acid

63

2 molecules conjugated to bile acids to convert them to bile salts

Taurine
Glycine

64

2 secondary bile acids

Deoxyholic acid
Lithocolic

65

Clinical manifestation of lipid malabsorption

Steatorhea

66

Spherical macromoleular complexes composed of a neutral lipid core surrounded by a shell of amphipathic lipoproteins

Lipoproteins

67

Protein moeity of lipoproteins

Apoproteins

68

Transport dietary triglyceride and cholesterol from intestine to tissues

Chylomicrons

69

Transport triglyceride from liver to tissues

VLDL

70

Delivers cholesterol into cells

LDL

71

Reverse cholesterol transport

HDL

72

Shuttles apo C II and apo E in the blood

HDL

73

Mediates chylomicron

Apo B48

74

Activates lipoprotein lipase

Apo C II

75

Mediates uptake of chylomicron remnant

Apo E

76

Binds to LDL recptor and mediates VLDL secretion

Apo B 100

77

Activates LCAT to produce cholesteryl esters in HDL

Apo A1

78

Degradation of TAG stored in adipocytrs

Hormone sensitive lipase

79

Degradation of dietary TAG in small intestine

Pancreatic lipase

80

Degradation of TAG circulating in chylomicrons and TAGs

Lipoprotein lipase

81

Degradation of TAG remaining in LDL

Hepatic tag lipase

82

Major component of lung surfactant

Dipalmitoylphosphatidyl

83

Only glycerophospholipid that is antigenic

Cardiolipin

84

Reservoir fro arachidonic acid in the memebranes and precursor for IP3 and DAG

Phosphatidyl inositol

85

Important constituent of myelin

Sphingomyelin

86

Fatty acid synthesis function

Generates palmitate

87

Fatty acid synthesis location

Cyoplasm and mitochondria in lver and lactating mammaries

88

Fatty acid synthesis reactants

Acetyl oa, malonyl CoA

89

Fatty acid synthesis products

Palmitate

90

Fatty acid synthesis rate limiting step

Acetyl OA to malonyl CoA via acetyl CoA carboxylase

91

Beta oxidation function

Generates acetyl CoA fom the ends of plmitate

92

Beta oxidation location

Mito, all cells except beurons, rbc, testes, renal medulla

93

Beta oxidation reactants

Palmitate

94

Beta oxidation poducts

Acetyl OA, NADH, FADH2, GTP

95

Beta oxidation rate limiting step

Carnitine acyltransferase

96

Beta oxidation type of metabolism

Catabolic

97

Beta oxidation hormonal state

Decrease insulin, increase glucagon

98

Beta oxidation order of reaction

Hot

99

Fatty acid synthesis tpe of metabolism

Anabolic

100

Fatty acid synthesis order of reaction

CRDR

101

Fatty acid synthesis hormonal state

Increase insulin, decrease glucagon